Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. dher-, dhereu-, dhrē̆n-   '(onomatopoeic: to drone, growl, purr, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: drēsacht n rattle GED
Old English: dora n.masc bumblebee ASD
drān, drǣn n.fem drone ASD/GED
Middle English: drane, drone n drone CDC
drounen vb to drone, roar/bellow (of a dragon) CDC
English: Dora prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
drone n male (honey) bee: has no sting, gathers no honey AHD/W7
drone vb to hum, buzz, murmur LRC
thre(a)ne n threnody, lamentation CDC
threnody n elegy, funeral lament AHD/W7
Scots English: drune vb to drone, low CDC
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: dronen, dreunen vb to drone, tremble, quaver CDC
Dutch: dreunen vb to drone, make a trembling noise CDC
Old Saxon: drān n.fem drone ASD
dren(i)o n.masc drone GED
Old Low German: drān n drone CDC
Middle Low German: drane, drone n drone CDC
dronen vb to drone CDC
Low German: drone n drone CDC
drönen vb.wk to drone, rumble GED
drunsen vb to moo softly GED
Old High German: treno n.masc drone GED
Middle High German: tren(e) n.masc drone ASD/CDC
German: Dran n.masc drone ASD
drensen vb to groan GED
Dro(h)ne n.fem drone ASD/CDC
drö(h)nen vb to drone CDC
Tre(h)ne, Thräne n.fem drone ASD/CDC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: dryn-hraun n lit. roaring-stones GED
drynja vb.wk to roar, rumble GED
Icelandic: drjōni n drone CDC
drunur n thundering CDC
Norwegian: dryn n.masc booming GED
Danish: drone n.masc/fem drone ASD/GED
dröne vb to drone, peal, boom, rumble CDC
Swedish: dröna vb to drone, low, bellow CDC
drönare, drönje n.masc drone(r) ASD/CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *drunjus n.masc sound, voice, droning CDC/GED
Latin: drēnsō, drēnsāre vb to call/sound (like a swan) GED
threnus n lamentation CDC
Lithuanian: tranni n drone CDC
Laconian: θρῶναξ n drone CDC
Greek: θρῆνος n.masc dirge, funeral lamentation GED
θρηνωιδια n.fem dirge, funeral lament LRC
θρώναξ n drone GED
τε(ν)θρήνη n bee, wasp CDC/GED
Armenian: dṙnč̣im vb to toot, resound GED
Sanskrit: druna n.masc bee ASD
dhráṇati vb to (re)sound GED
Tocharian B: treṅk- vb to speak GED
Tocharian A: träṅk- vb to speak GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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