Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhers-   'to dare, be bold'

Semantic Field(s): to Dare, Brave, Courageous


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: durran, dearr, durron, dorste vb.ptpr.III to dare LRC
Middle English: dar vb.1/ (I/he) dare(s) W7
English: dare vb to be sufficiently courageous AHD/W7
durst vb.pret.arch dared AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: thura, thur, dur, thuron, thorste vb.ptpr to dare ASD
Old Saxon: gi-durran, gi-dar, gi-dorsta vb.ptpr to dare ASD
Old High German: gitar vb.1/ (I/he) dare(s) W7
turran, tar, turrumè„s, torsta vb.ptpr to dare ASD
Middle High German: turren, tar, turen, torste vb.ptpr to dare ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: daursan, dars, daursum, daursta vb.ptpr to dare ASD
Latin: infestus adj hostile W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
III=class 3
pret=preterite (tense)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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