Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhēs-, dhəs-   '(used in religious terms)'

Semantic Field(s): Religion


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: feire n fair W7
feste n feast W7
festival adj festival W7
Panteon n pantheon, a temple at Rome W7
prophane adj profane W7
English: apotheosis n deification, elevation to divine status AHD/W7
atheism n disbelief in existence of deity AHD/W7
Dorothy prop.n female given name AHD
enthusiasm n belief in Holy Spirit revelations AHD/W7
fair n gathering of buyers/sellers at particular place/time AHD/W7
fanatic adj marked by excessive enthusiasm, intense uncritical devotion AHD/W7
feast n banquet, elaborate meal (usu. with entertainment) AHD/W7
feria n day without church feast AHD/W7
-fest n.sfx festival AHD/W7
festal adj festive AHD/W7
festival adj festive, re: feast AHD/W7
festival n feast, party, celebration AHD/W7
festive adj re: feast/festival AHD/W7
festoon n decorative chain/strip suspended between two points AHD/W7
fete n festival AHD/W7
fiesta n festival AHD/W7
henotheism n worshipping one god without denying existence of others AHD/W7
Oktoberfest prop.n autumn festival emphasizing merrymaking and beer-drinking AHD
pantheism n doctrine equating God with laws/forces of universe W7
pantheon n temple dedicated to all gods AHD/W7
polytheism n belief in/worship of multiple gods AHD/W7
profane adj secular, not concerned with religion/religious purposes AHD/W7
Timothy prop.n male given name LRC
West Germanic  
German: Fest n.neut feast, holiday, festival W7
Henotheismus n henotheism W7
Oktoberfest prop.n.neut Oktoberfest AHD
Latin: fanaticus adj frenzied, fanatic, inspired by deity W7
fanum n.neut temple W7
feriae holidays, festal days W7
festivus adj festive W7
festum n.neut feast, festival W7
festus adj festal, solemn W7
Pantheon n.neut pantheon, grouping of all gods W7
profanus adj profane, outside the temple W7
Timotheus n.masc Timothy W7
Late Latin: apotheōsis n apotheosis AHD
feria n.fem festal day W7
Medieval Latin: feria n.fem fair, weekday W7
New Latin: atheismus n atheism CDC
Portuguese: atheismo n atheism CDC
festa n feast, festival TLL
Spanish: ateismo n atheism CDC
fiesta n.fem feast, festival W7
Old French: feire n.fem fair W7
feste n.fem feast, festival W7
Middle French: athée adj/n.masc atheist W7
athéisme n.masc atheism W7
festival n.masc festival W7
prophane adj profane, outside the temple W7
French: athéisme n atheism CDC
feston n.masc festal decoration W7
fête n.fem feast, festival W7
polythéisme n.masc polytheism W7
Italian: ateismo n atheism CDC
festa n.fem feast, festival W7
festone n.masc festoon W7
Greek: atheos adj godless W7
apotheoun vb to deify W7
apotheōsis n.fem deification W7
entheos adj inspired W7
enthousiazein vb to be inspired W7
enthousiasmos n.masc divine inspiration W7
theos n.masc god W7
pantheion n.neut temple of all gods W7
pantheios adj re: all gods W7
polytheos adj re: many gods W7
Timotheos n.masc Timothy W7
Late Greek: polytheos adj polytheistic W7
Armenian: dik' gods HH/W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
HH=Heinrich Hübschmann: Armenische Grammatik (1897)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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