Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-   'to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dé n smoke LRC
dumacha n fog GED/RPN
dūn n fortress W7
Irish: dunn adj dun ASD
dūd n.masc stump, pipe; ear, mouth IED/W7
dūidīn n.masc short pipe; dram measure made of horn IED/W7
Gaelic: donn adj dun, brown ASD
Cornish: din, dun n.fem hill ASD
Welsh: dun, dwn adj dusky, swarthy ASD
Old English: adūn(e) adj/adv down, downward ASD/W7
dēaf adj deaf GED
dēafu n.str.fem deafness GED
dēag, dēah n.fem dye IEW/W7
dēagan, dēog, dēogon, dēagen vb.str to dye ASD
dēagian vb.wk to dye ASD/IEW
dēagol, dī(o)gol, dȳgol adj secret, hidden, private ASD/IEW
*dēan n vapor GED
dēor, dīor adj/n.neut (brave as) deer, wild beast/animal ASD
dofian vb to be insane GED
dol adj foolish ASD/W7
dox adj dusk W7
dūfe n dove W7
dūn n.fem down, hill, mountain W7
dūne adv down, downwards ASD/W7
dūn-land n.neut hilly land, lit. down-land ASD
dun(n) adj/n dun, dark brown W7
dūst n.neut dust W7
dwalian, dwoli(g)an vb.wk to err, hinder, go astray ASD
dwellan, dwe(o)ligan vb.wk to err, hinder, go astray ASD
dysig adj stupid W7
stē(a)m, stīem n.masc steam, hot breath/exhalation ASD/KEW
tūn n.masc town, village; yard, court, enclosure W7
wild-dēoren adj re: wild beasts W7
Middle English: deef adj deaf W7
deer n (rein)deer W7
dehe n dye W7
disy adj dizzy W7
dosk n dusk W7
doun n hill W7
dove n dove W7
dul adj dull W7
dumb adj dumb W7
dun adj dun W7
dust n dust W7
dwellen vb to dwell W7
fume n fume W7
funeral adj/n funeral W7
reindere n reindeer W7
stem n steam W7
stove n stove W7
stu n stew W7
tanesey n tansy W7
thyme n thyme W7
town n town W7
turrible n thurible W7
wildern adj wild W7
wilderness n wilderness W7
English: Barrow-downs prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
deaf adj lacking/deficient in sense of hearing AHD/W7
Déagol prop.n Smeagol's cousin in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
deer n ruminant mammal AHD/W7
Déor prop.n 7th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Déorwine prop.n Rohan knight in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dizzy adj silly, foolish AHD/W7
dock n sorrel, coarse weedy plant AHD
dodder n flax silk IEW
dodder vb to shake, shiver, tremble, totter IEW
doldrums n spell of despondence/listlessness AHD/W7
dolt n stupid fellow AHD/W7
dove n type of pigeon AHD/W7
down adv toward/in low physical position AHD/W7
down n soft fluffy feathers AHD/W7
down n hill, mountain AHD/W7
dudeen n short clay tobacco pipe AHD/W7
Dukhobor prop.n (member of) Russian Christian movement AHD
dull adj stupid, mentally slow AHD/W7
dumb adj destitute of speech AHD/W7
dummkopf n dolt, stupid person AHD
dun adj re: dull drab dark-gray/brown color AHD/W7
Duncan prop.n male given name AHD
dune n wind-piled sand hill/ridge AHD/W7
Dúnharg, Dunharrow prop.n Rohan refuge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dúnhere prop.n lord of Harrowdale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dunland prop.n hilly area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dusk adj gloom, twilight AHD/W7
dust n fine dry pulverized dirt particles AHD/W7
duvet n down-stuffed quilt/comforter AHD/CDC
duvetyn n smooth lustrous velvety fabric AHD/W7
Dwalin prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
Dwaling prop.n distant hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
dwell, dwelt vb.wk.intrans to remain for a while AHD/W7
dye n tint, color W7
dye vb to impart new tint/color IEW
eiderdown n down of eider AHD/W7
enthymeme n syllogism in which one premise is implicit AHD/W7
etouffee n spiced Cajun stew similar to gumbo AHD
euthanasia n painless putting to death AHD/W7
Frogmorton prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
fuliginous adj sooty AHD/W7
fumarole n volcanic hole from which hot gases/vapors issue AHD/W7
fumatorium n airtight fumigation chamber AHD
fumatory adj re: smoke/fumigation AHD
fume n gas, smoke, vapor AHD/W7
funeral adj/n (re:) observances held for dead person AHD/W7
funky adj having moldy/musty smell AHD
fuscous adj re: brownish gray color AHD/W7
Hobbiton prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Lake-town prop.n a.k.a. Esgaroth in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
obfuscate vb.trans to darken AHD/W7
perfume n sweet-smelling scent AHD/W7
reindeer n deer of northern Europe/Asia/America AHD/W7
sfumato adj smoked, misty, indistinct AHD
steam n vapor rising from heated substance W7
stew n utensil used for boiling AHD/W7
stove n fixed/portable apparatus burning fuel to provide heat AHD/W7
subfusc adj dull, dark, somber AHD
tansy n composite herb AHD/W7
thanatology n study of death/dying AHD
Thanatos prop.n god of peaceful/natural death (Greek mythology) LRC
thion- pfx sulfur AHD/W7
thuja n evergreen shrub/tree of pine family AHD/W7
thurible n censer AHD/W7
thurifer n one who carries censer in liturgical service AHD/W7
thyme n mint herb having small pungent aromatic leaves AHD/W7
-thymia n.sfx condition of mind/will AHD/W7
town n hamlet, distinct cluster/aggregation of houses with place-name AHD/W7
typhlosole n longitudinal fold of intestinal wall AHD
typhus n human febrile disease AHD/W7
Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wilderness n uncultivated uninhabited tract/region of land AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dāf adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling GED
diar, dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
dwela, dwila vb to err ASD
tūn n.masc fence ASD
Frisian: dol adj mad ASD
dwæljen, dwyljen vb to err ASD
Middle Dutch: doom n steam, vapor GED
Dutch: dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
dof adj dull, lusterless GED
dok n dock TLL
dol adj insane ASD
doof adj deaf ASD
duif n dove TLL
duin n.masc down, hill, mountain ASD
dwālen vb to err ASD
stoom n steam TLL
tuin n.masc fence; garden ASD
Old Saxon: dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
dol adj foolish ASD
dōmian vb.wk to steam GED
douf adj deaf ASD
dovōn vb to be insane GED
duelan vb to err ASD
dununga n.str.fem raving GED
Old Low German: tūn n.masc wall ASD
Middle Low German: dōf adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling GED
stove n heated room, steam room W7
Old High German: dūn(a) n mountain ASD
stuba n steam room, heated room W7
tior, tier n.neut wild animal ASD/W7
tobēn, tobōn vb to rave GED
tol adj foolish ASD
toub, toup, doup adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling ASD/GED
tougal adj dark, secret, hidden ASD
toum n.str.masc steam, vapor GED/RPN
toumen vb to be fragrant W7
tūba n dove W7
tumb adj dumb, mute W7
tūmōn vb.wk to turn in a circle GED
tump adj dumb, deaf GED
tusig adj stupid W7
twellen vb to dwell, tarry W7
zūn n.masc wall, fence, hedge, enclosure ASD/W7
Middle High German: dol, tol adj mad ASD
tier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
tob, top adj without understanding GED
touben vb.wk to stun, deafen GED
toup adj deaf ASD
German: Daune n.fem down (feathers) W7
Dock n dock TLL
doof adj dopey, silly LRC
dumm adj dumb, dull, slow, stupid LRC
Dummkopf n.masc dummkopf, blockhead, simpleton LRC
Düne n.fem down, hill, mountain ASD
Eiderdaune n.fem eiderdown W7
Stube n.fem living room LRC
taub adj deaf ASD
Taube n dove TLL
T(h)ier n.neut animal ASD
toll adj mad ASD
Zaun n.masc fence, hedge LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: daufr adj deaf LRC
deyja vb to die W7
dul n.fem reserve, folly; conceit LRC
dulði, dylja vb to remain unaware of; (mid.) deceive oneself LRC
dúfa n dove KNW
dūnn n down (feathers) W7
Dvalinn prop.n.masc Dvalin/Dwalin (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
dvalinn n.masc sleeper, hesitant/unconscious one LRC
dýr n.neut (wild) animal LRC
Old Icelandic: daufr adj deaf, lazy GED
daunn n stench, bad smell GED/RPN
deyfa vb.wk to stun, deafen GED
deyfþ n.str.fem deafness GED
dofinn vb.past.ptc dull, spiritless GED
dvala, dvalað vb to dwell, delay, hesitate ICE
dȳja vb.wk to move, shake GED/RPN
Icelandic: daufr adj deaf ASD
dulr adj silent, close ASD
dūnn n down W7
dȳr n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
tun n.masc homestead, enclosure ASD
Norwegian: tun n.masc court, farmyard ASD
Danish: dok n dock TLL
due n dove TLL
dyr n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
döv adj deaf ASD
Swedish: djur n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
docka n dock TLL
duva n dove TLL
döf adj deaf ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *daufs, daubs adj deaf, stubborn ASD/GED
dauns n.fem smell, scent, fragrance, sense of smell GED/RPN
dius n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
dumbs adj dumb, deaf GED
dwals adj dull ASD
hraiwa-dubō n turtle-dove GED
Latin: fimus, fimi n.masc dung LRC
fuligo, fuliginis n.fem soot W7
fumarium n.neut smoke chamber for aging wine W7
fūmō, fūmāre vb to fume, reek, smoke W7
fūmus n.masc fume, smoke, steam GED/RPN
funeralis adj funeral W7
funus, funeris n.neut funeral W7
furo, furere vb to rage W7
fuscus adj dark brown W7
subfuscus adj subfusc, brownish AHD
suffiō, suffīre vb to smoke, perfume, fumigate GED
thuribulum n.neut censer W7
thurifer adj incense-burning W7
thus n.neut incense W7
thymum n.neut thyme W7
Vulgar Latin: extufa n.fem steam, smoke W7
extufo, extufāre vb to stew W7
Late Latin: fuliginosus adj covered with soot W7
fumariolum n.neut smoke chamber for aging wine W7
obfuscatus vb.ptc made murky W7
obfusco, obfuscāre, obfuscāvī, obfuscātus vb to make murky W7
Medieval Latin: athanasia n.fem immortality W7
thuia n.fem a cedar W7
New Latin: Thuja n.fem genus name W7
thurifer n.masc one who carries a censer in a liturgical service W7
-thymia sfx -thymia; re: heart W7
typhus n.masc fever, disease W7
Portuguese: fumo n fume TLL
Spanish: dúnas downs, hills, mountains ASD
humo n fume TLL
Old French: dum n.masc down W7
tanesie n.fem tansy (plant genus) W7
Middle French: duvet n.masc down W7
estuve n.fem stew W7
fum n.masc smoke W7
perfum n.masc perfume W7
thurible n.masc censer W7
thym n.masc thyme W7
French: dune n.fem dune W7
duvet n.masc down W7
duvetine n.fem duvet, cloth made with duvet W7
fumée n fume TLL
Cajun French: étouffée n etouffee LRC
Old Provençal: perfum n.masc perfume W7
perfumar vb to perfume W7
Provençal: dauf adj deaf GED
Italian: dúna n.fem elevation of sand thrown up by the sea ASD
fumaròla n.fem fumarole W7
fumo n fume TLL
sfumato adj sfumato AHD
Old Prussian: dumis n smoke GED/RPN
Lithuanian: dujà n dust, spray, drizzle; [pl.] gas GED/RPN
dujóti vb to sprinkle GED
dúmai smoke GED/RPN
Latvian: dũmals adj dark-brown GED
dūlāgs n.masc smoke stick LRC
dūms n.masc smoke LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dunǫti vb to blow LRC
dymъ n smoke GED/RPN
Old Russian: dymŭ n smoke LRC
Albanian: deh vb to intoxicate GED
dêj vb to be intoxicated LRC
Greek: athanasia n.fem immortality W7
ἀθάνατος adj immortal LRC
athanatos adj immortal W7
enthymeisthai vb to keep in mind W7
enthymēma n.neut a thought W7
euthanasia n.fem easy death, favored death W7
Thanatos n.masc Thanatos W7
thanatos n.masc death W7
theion adj.neut divine W7
θνήσκω vb to die LRC
thyia n.fem cedar tree W7
θυμιάω vb to burn with smoke LRC
θύμον, θύμος n.neut thyme LRC
θῡμός n.masc soul, spirit; heart, mind; passion, courage LRC
θῡ́νω vb to rush, dart along RPN
θύος n incense, sacrifice RPN
θύω vb to sacrifice, make a burnt offering GED
τύφειν vb to smoke, raise dust RPN
τυφλός adj blind, unable to perceive GED
τῦφος n.masc smoke, vapor; conceit, vanity GED
Hittite: túh̯-h̯u-iš n smoke, vapor RPN
Armenian: dedevim vb to wave, sway LRC
Avestan: dunman- n cloud GED
Sanskrit: adhvanīt vb.pret it vanished W7
dhū́ka-ḥ n wind RPN
dhūnóti vb to shake, agitate GED/RPN
dhūpa-ḥ n incense RPN
dhūmá-ḥ n smoke, mist, vapor RPN
dhūli-ḥ n dust, powder, pollen RPN
dhvamsati vb to perish W7
Tocharian B: tweye n dust, vapor RPN
Tocharian A: twe(ye) n dust, vapor GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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