Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dheu-b-, dheu-p-   'deep, hollow'

Semantic Field(s): Deep, Hollow, Concave


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: Domnall prop.n Donald AHD
Old English: dēop, dīop adj deep ASD/W7
dūfan vb.str to dive, sink ASD/W7
dȳfan vb.wk to dip ASD/W7
dyppan, dippan vb.wk to dip ASD/W7
Middle English: de(e)p adj deep W7
depth n depth W7
dippen vb to dip W7
diven, duven vb to dive W7
dympull n dimple W7
English: deep adj extending far down from surface AHD/W7
depth n deep place in body of water AHD/W7
dimple n depression/indentation in cheek IEW/W7
dip vb to plunge/immerse (in liquid) to cool/coat/moisten AHD/W7
dive vb to plunge headfirst into water AHD/W7
Donald prop.n male given name AHD
dump n deep water-filled hole IEW
Pythia prop.n priestess/prophetess of Delphic Apollo W7
Pythian prop.adj re: Pytho W7
Pytho prop.n (older name for) Delphi W2I
Python prop.n dragon/serpent as tutelary demon of Delphic oracular cult AHD
python n large constricting snake (e.g. boa) AHD/W7
Typhon prop.n monster with 100 heads (Greek mythology) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: diap, diop adj deep ASD
Dutch: diep adj deep ASD
doopen vb to dip, baptize ASD
Old Saxon: diap, diop adj deep ASD
dōpian vb to dip, baptize ASD
Old High German: tiof, tiuf adj deep ASD/W7
toufēn vb to dip, baptize ASD
tupfen n to wash W7
Middle High German: tief adj deep ASD
toufen vb to dip, baptize ASD
German: taufen vb to dip, baptize ASD
tief adj deep ASD
tupfen vb to dab LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: djúpr adj deep LRC
Icelandic: djūpr adj deep ASD
dȳfa vb to dip ASD
Danish: dyb adj deep ASD
Swedish: djup adj deep ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: daupyan vb to dip, baptize ASD
diups adj deep LRC
Latin: Pȳthia n.fem Pythia, the Pythoness ELD
Pȳthi(c)us adj Delphic, Pythian ELD
Pȳthōn prop.n.masc Python: snake killed by Apollo near Delphi W7
Typhon n.masc Typhon W7
Lithuanian: dubus adj deep LD/W7
Greek: Πυθία prop.n Pythia ELD
Πυθικός prop.adj Delphic, Pythian ELD
Πύθιος prop.adj Delphic, Pythian ELD
Pythōn n.masc Python: spirit of divination W7
Typhōn n.masc Typhon W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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