Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhrebh-   'to drub, crush, grind to pieces'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat, to Grind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: drepan vb to drub CDC
Middle English: draf n husks, grains GED
drepen vb to drub, kill CDC
English: drub vb to beat, strike CDC
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: draf n husks, grains GED
Dutch: treffen vb to drub ASD
Old High German: *trab n husks, grains GED
tref(f)an vb to drub, touch ASD/CDC
Middle High German: triffen vb to drub ASD
German: treffen vb to drub ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: drepa vb to drub, smite, kill, slay LRC
Old Icelandic: blōð-drefjar lit. blood-spattering GED
draf n husks GED
drafna vb to disintegrate GED
Icelandic: drepa vb to drub, hit ASD
Danish: dræbe vb to drub, kill, slay CDC
Swedish: drabba vb to drub, hit CDC
dræpa vb to kill, slay ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ga-draban vb.str.VI to hew out GED
Old Church Slavonic: drobiti vb to break up GED
Russian: drob n.fem fragment GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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