Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhreg̑-   'to pull'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: drencan vb.irr to drench ASD/W7
drincan vb.irr to drink ASD/W7
medu-drinc n.masc mead-drink LRC
Middle English: drenchen vb to drench W7
drinken vb to drink W7
drounen vb to drown W7
English: drench vb.trans to force to drink AHD/W7
drink, drank, drunk vb.str to imbibe, swallow AHD/W7
drink n beverage, liquid suitable for swallowing W7
drown vb to suffocate by submersion AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: drenka, drinka, drinsa vb to drown ASD
drinka vb to drink ASD
Frisian: drincken vb to drink ASD
drinssen vb to drench ASD
Dutch: drank n drink TLL
drenken vb to drench ASD
drinken vb to drink ASD
Old Saxon: drenkan vb to drench ASD
drinkan vb to drink ASD
Old High German: trinkan, trenkjan, trankjan vb to drink ASD/W7
Middle High German: trenken vb to drench ASD
trinken vb to drink ASD
German: Getränk n drink TLL
tränken vb to give to drink ASD
trinken vb.irr to drink ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: drekka vb to drink LRC
Icelandic: drekka vb to drink ASD
drekkja vb to drown ASD
Danish: drik n drink TLL
drikke vb to drink ASD
Swedish: dricka vb to drink ASD
dryck n drink TLL
dränka vb to drown ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: dragkyan vb to give to drink ASD
drigkan vb to drink ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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