Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dhregh-   'to run'

Semantic Field(s): to Run


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: droch n wheel RPN
Middle English: trocle n truckle W7
trukken vb to truck W7
English: trochal adj wheel-like AHD/W7
trochanter n rough prominence at upper end of vertebrate femur AHD/W7
troche n medicinal tablet/lozenge AHD/W7
trochee n long/stressed followed by short/unstressed syllable AHD/W7
trochisk n medicinal tablet/lozenge AHD/W7
trochlea n anatomical structure resembling pulley AHD/W7
trochophore n free-swimming ciliate larva AHD/W7
truck n small wheel AHD/W7
truck vb to swap, give in exchange AHD/W7
truckle n caster, pulley, small wheel AHD/W7
Latin: trochaeus n.masc trochee W7
trochlea n.fem block of pulleys W7
trochus n.masc iron hoop W7
Late Latin: trochiscus n.masc wheel W7
New Latin: trochlea n.fem an anatomical structure resembling a pulley W7
Old French: troquer vb to exchange W7
French: trochée n.fem trochee W7
Greek: προτρέχω vb to outrun LRC
τρέχω vb to run LRC
trochaios adj running W7
trochantēr n.masc organ/instrument for running W7
trochē n.fem run, course W7
trochileia n.fem trochlea W7
τροχιός adj round RPN
trochiskos n.masc.dim small wheel W7
τρόχος n a running course RPN
τροχός n wheel RPN
Armenian: durgn n potter's wheel RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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