Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhreibh-   'to drive, push, thrust'

Semantic Field(s): to Drive, to Push, Shove


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: drāf n.fem drove ASD/W7
drīfan, drȳfan vb.str.I to drive ASD/GED
ge-drif n.neut something driven off GED
Northumbrian: drīfa vb.str to drive LRC
Middle English: drift n drift W7
driven vb to drive W7
drove n drove W7
English: drift n act/result of driving something along AHD/W7
drive, drove, driven vb.str to move rapidly, impart forward motion via physical force AHD/W7
drove n animals driven/moving together AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: drīva vb.str.I to drive GED
Frisian: drieuwen vb to drive, force ASD
Dutch: drijven vb to drive, force ASD
Old Saxon: drīƀan vb.str.I to drive GED
Old High German: trīban vb.str.I to drive GED
Middle High German: trīben vb to drive, force ASD
trift n.str.fem drift, driving snow GED
German: treiben vb to drive, force ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: drífa vb to drive, rush; to crowd, throng LRC
Old Icelandic: drīf n.neut something driven off GED
drīfa, drift n.fem drift, driving snow GED
Icelandic: drif n driven snow ASD
drīfa vb to drive, force ASD
Danish: drive vb to drive, force ASD
Swedish: drifva vb to drive, force ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *dreiban vb.str.I to drive GED
*us-dreiban vb.str.I to drive out GED
Lithuanian: drìbti vb to fall down (in flakes) GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at