Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhu̯ē̆r-, dhu̯ō̆r-, dhur-, dhu̯r̥-   'door'

Semantic Field(s): Door, Gate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dor n door GED
Dorchū prop.n Doorway-dog GED
dorus n door LRC
Old Cornish: dor n door GED
Welsh: dor n door GED
Gaulish: duros n door GED
Old English: dor n doorway, gate W7
duru, dūru n.fem door ASD
duru-weard n.str.masc door-keeper GED
Middle English: dor n door W7
dure n door W7
forclosen vb to foreclose W7
forein adj foreign W7
forest n forest W7
English: afforest vb.trans to establish forest cover AHD/W7
door n swinging/sliding barrier by which entry is opened/closed AHD/W7
durbar n court held by native Indian prince AHD/W7
farouche adj marked by shyness/lack of polish AHD/W7
foreclose vb to debar, shut out AHD/W7
foreign adj located outside area/country AHD/W7
forensic adj used in/suitable to/belonging to court AHD/W7
forest n tract of wooded land AHD/W7
forum n public/market-place of ancient Roman city used for judicial/public business AHD/W7
thyroid adj re: large endocrine gland in craniate vertebrates AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dore, dure n door GED
Frisian: doar(e) n door ASD
Dutch: deur n door TLL
Old Saxon: dor n.neut doorway GED/ASD
dura, duri n.str.fem door GED
Old High German: tor n.str.neut doorway, gate GED
tor-warto n.wk.masc door-keeper GED
tura, turi n.str.fem door GED
German: Thor n.neut gate ASD
Thüre, Tür n.fem door ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: dyrr n.fem doorway LRC
Old Icelandic: dyrr n.fem doorway GED
Icelandic: dyrr n.fem door ASD
Danish: dør n.neut door ASD
Swedish: dörr n.fem door ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: auga-dauro n.neut window, lit. eye-door GED
daur, daūr(o) n.fem/neut door(way) GED/ASD
daurons n vestibule GED
faura-dauri n.neut street GED
Crimean Gothic: *þur, thurn n door, gate CGo/GED
Latin: forās adv forth, outward, outdoors LRC
forensis adj public, forensic W7
foris, foris n.fem door; [pl.] gate GED
forīs adv outside GED
forum n.neut public place W7
Late Latin: foranus adj (on the) outside W7
forasticus adj belonging outside W7
Medieval Latin: afforesto, afforestare vb to plant a forest W7
forestis n.fem forest W7
Portuguese: fora adv out, outside TLL
Spanish: fuera adv out, outside TLL
Old French: forclore, forclos- vb to lock outside W7
forein adj foreign W7
fors adv outside W7
French: farouche adj beast afraid of mankind W7
hors adv out, outside TLL
Italian: fuori adv out, outside TLL
Old Prussian: dauris n door GED
Old Lithuanian: dures n gate GED
Lithuanian: dùrys n door LRC
Latvian: duris, dùrvis n door GED
Old Church Slavonic: dvĭrĭ n door LRC
dvorъ n court GED
Albanian: derë n door GED
Homeric Greek: θύρα n.fem door LRC
Greek: θύρα-ζε adv toward the outside GED
thyreoeidēs adj shield-shaped, thyroid W7
thyreos n.masc door-shaped shield W7
θυρών n vestibule GED
πρόθυρον n porch GED
Hittite: andurza adv within GED
Armenian: duṙn n door, gate, court GED
Old Persian: duva-rayā adv at court GED
Persian: dar n door W7
darbār n court held by prince W7
Avestan: dvarəm n gate GED
dvar̥m n gate, yard LRC
Sanskrit: dvāra n.neut door ASD
dvā́r- n.fem door, gate GED/ASD
Hindi: darbār n court held by prince W7
Tocharian B: twere n door LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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