Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: dhu̯ergh- : drugh-   'crippled, dwarf-like, low in stature'

Semantic Field(s): Weak, Infirm, Crooked, Short


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dweorg, dweorh n.masc dwarf CDC
Middle English: dwarf, dwerf n dwarf CDC
English: dwarf, dwarves n abnormally/atypically small individual(s) CDC
Dwarrowdelf prop.n a.k.a. Khazad-dum in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dwirg n dwarf ASD
Frisian: dwirg n dwarf ASD
Dutch: dwerg n.masc/fem dwarf CDC/ASD
Middle Low German: dwarch, dwark, dwerch n dwarf CDC
Old High German: twerg n.masc dwarf CDC/ASD
Middle High German: twerc, querch, zwerch n.neut dwarf CDC/ASD
German: Zwerg n.masc dwarf, pygmy CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: dvergr, dvergar n.masc dwarf, dwarves LRC
Icelandic: dvergr n.masc dwarf ASD
Danish: dverg, dværg n.masc/fem dwarf CDC/ASD
Swedish: dverg n.masc dwarf CDC/ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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