Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ēik-   'to own, possess, be capable'

Semantic Field(s): to Own, Possess


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: icht n race, descendants GED
Old English: ǣgen, āgen adj own, proper, peculiar LRC
ǣht n.str.fem property GED
āgan, āh, āgon, āhte vb.ptpr.I to own, possess LRC
āgnian, āhnian vb.wk to acquire, possess ASD/GED
Middle English: fraught n fraught, freight W7
fraughten vb to fraught, freight W7
freight n freight W7
oughte vb.aux ought W7
owen vb to owe, own W7
English: fraught adj.arch freighted AHD/W7
freight n payment for transport of goods AHD/W7
freight vb.trans to load/transport (cargo) W7
ought vb.aux to be morally obliged AHD/W7
owe vb to own, possess AHD/W7
own adj belonging to self AHD/W7
own vb to possess LRC
Scots English: fraught n freight, load, cargo AHD/W7
fraught vb.trans to freight AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: āga vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
ē(g)in, ain, e(i)gen adj own ASD/GED
Middle Dutch: vracht n freight W7
Old Saxon: ēgan adj own GED
ēgan n.str.neut property, possessions GED
ēgan vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
Middle Low German: vrecht n freight W7
Old High German: ēht n.str.fem property GED
eigan, eikan adj own ASD/GED
eigan n.str.neut property, possessions GED
eigan vb.ptpr.I to own, possess GED
eiginēn vb.wk to take possession of GED
Middle High German: eigen adj own ASD
German: eigen adj own LRC
eignen vb to be suited for LRC
Fracht n.fem freight LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: átt, ætt n.str.fem region, direction; tribe, family, ancestry ASD
eiga vb.ptpr.I to own, have, possess LRC
eigin(n) adj own ASD/W7
eigna, eignað vb.wk to dedicate, take possession LRC
eignask vb to gain possession, get for oneself LRC
eigu n.fem possession LRC
Old Icelandic: ātt n.str.fem race, descendants GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *aigan vb to have GED
aigin n.neut property GED
áihts n.str.fem property, possession LRC
fair-aigan vb to partake (of) GED
Old Church Slavonic: istъ adj true, genuine GED
Avestan: ise vb to have power over GED
īšti- n riches, property GED
Sanskrit: īśe, īṣṭe vb to own, possess GED
Tocharian B: aiśaumye n learned person GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at