Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. eis-   'to move rapidly/violently'

Semantic Field(s): to Move, Fast, Swift, Quick


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: īren, īse(r)n n.neut iron, implement made thereof ASD
ofost, ōf(o)st, ōfest n.fem zeal, haste ASD/W7
Middle English: gisarme n gisarme W7
iron n iron W7
English: estrogen n sex hormone promoting estrus (etc.) in female AHD/W7
estrone n estrogenic hormone AHD/W7
estrus n heat, regularly recurrent state during which female mammal is able to conceive AHD/W7
gisarme n weapon on long staff carried by medieval foot soldiers AHD/W7
hierarch n religious leader in position of authority AHD/W7
hierarchy n (body of) persons with authority AHD
hieratic adj re: ancient Egyptian cursive writing (simpler than hieroglyphic) AHD/W7
hier(o)- pfx holy, sacred AHD
hierodule n temple slave (in ancient Greece) AHD
Irensaga prop.n mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
iron n heavy magnetic ductile/malleable metal AHD/W7
Isen prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Isengard prop.n Saruman's fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Isengrim prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
spiegeleisen n variety of pig iron AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: īsern n iron (implement) ASD
Dutch: ijzer n iron TLL
Old Saxon: īsarn n iron (implement) ASD
Old Low German: īsarn n iron, steel ASD
Old High German: īsarn, īsen n iron (implement) ASD/W7
German: Eisen n iron (implement) W7
eisern adj of iron LRC
Spiegeleisen n spiegeleisen W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: īsarn n iron (implement) IEW
Icelandic: járn, īsarn n iron (implement) ASD
Danish: jern n iron (implement) ASD
Swedish: järn n iron (implement) ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: eisarn n iron, iron fetter ASD
Latin: hieraticus adj hieratic, sacerdotal W7
oestrus n.masc estrus, frenzy, gadfly W7
Medieval Latin: hierarcha n.masc hierarch W7
New Latin: estrus n.masc estrus W7
Middle French: hierarche n.masc hierarch W7
Greek: hierarchēs n.masc priest, hierarch W7
hieratikos adj hieratic, re: priests W7
ἱερόν n.neut temple LRC
ἱερός adj holy, sacred LRC
οἶμαι vb.dep to think LRC
οἴομαι vb to think, imagine LRC
oistros n.masc estrus, frenzy, gadfly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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