Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: e-neu̯en, neu̯n̥, enu̯n̥   'nine'

Semantic Field(s): Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: noī nbr.card nine (9) EIE
nōmad nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Irish: naoi nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Scots Gaelic: naoi nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Manx: nuy nbr.card nine (9) LRC
Middle Welsh: naw nbr.card nine (9) EIE
nawuet nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Gaulish: namet nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Old English: hundnigontig nbr.card hundred ninety (190) W7
nigon nbr.card nine (9) W7
nigontīene nbr.card nineteen (19) ASD/W7
nigontig nbr.card ninety (90) W7
nigoða nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
nōn n.neut noon, none ASD/W7
Middle English: nine, nyne adj nine (9) W7
ninety nbr.card ninety (90) W7
nonys nones W7
noon n noon W7
Novembre prop.n November W7
nynetene nbr.card nineteen (19) W7
English: ennead n nine AHD/W7
nine nbr.card 9 AHD/W7
nineteen nbr.card 19 AHD/W7
ninety nbr.card 90 AHD/W7
ninth nbr.ord 9th AHD
nonagenarian n person in his/her nineties AHD/W7
nonagon n polygon of nine sides/angles AHD/W7
none n ninth hour from sunrise W7
nones 9th day before Ides of month AHD/W7
noon n midday, middle of day AHD/W7
November prop.n 11th month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
novena n nine-day devotion (Roman Catholicism) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: nigun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
Old Saxon: nigun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
nōn, nuon n noon, none ASD
Old High German: niun nbr.card nine (9) W7
niunte, niunto nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
German: neun nbr.card nine LRC
neunzehn nbr.card nineteen LRC
neunzig nbr.card ninety LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: niundi, niunde nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
nīu, nío nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Icelandic: níu nbr.card nine (9) ASD
nōn n.neut none ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: niun nbr.card nine (9) ASD
niunda nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Crimean Gothic: nyne nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Latin: nona n.fem none W7
nonae nones, 5th day of month W7
nōnus adj ninth (9th) W7
novem nbr.card nine (9) W7
November prop.n.masc November, ninth month (in Roman calendar) W7
novenus adj nine each W7
Medieval Latin: novena n.fem novena W7
Portuguese: nove num.card nine (9) TLL
Spanish: nueve num.card nine (9) TLL
Old French: Novembre prop.n.masc November W7
French: neuf num.card nine (9) TLL
Italian: nove num.card nine (9) TLL
Old Prussian: newīnts nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Lithuanian: deviñtas nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
devynì nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Latvian: devini nbr.card nine (9) EIE
devîtais nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: devętĭ nbr.card nine (9) EIE
devętŭ nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Russian: dévjatĭ nbr.card nine (9) EIE
devjátyj nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Albanian: nëndë, nëntë nbr.card nine (9) EIE
nëndë, nëntë nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Gheg: nândë, nântë nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Greek: ἔνατος nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
ἐννέα nbr.card nine (9) EIE
enneas n.fem group of nine W7
Lycian: nuñ- nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Armenian: inn nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Avestan: naoma- nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
nava nbr.card nine (9) EIE
Sanskrit: náva nbr.card nine (9) EIE
navamá- nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Tocharian B: ñu nbr.card nine (9) EIE
ñunte nbr.ord ninth (9th) EIE
Tocharian A: ñu nbr.card nine (9) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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