Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. er- : or- : r-   'to move, set in motion'

Semantic Field(s): to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: renn adj rapid GED
rīan n sea GED
Gaulish: Rēnos prop.n Rhine river GED
rēnos n river AHD
rhynn adj fast; alive; agitated LRC
Old English: ærnan vb.wk to cause to run GED
a-rǣman vb.wk to raise, elevate, lift up ASD/IEW
arīsan, arās, arison, arisen vb.str to arise ASD/W7
arod adj quick, swift; ready, prepared ASD
earon are LRC
eart art W7
earu adj quick, swift; ready, prepared IEW
earun are W7
eorl n.masc earl, warrior LRC
eorl-scipe, eorl-scype n.indec.masc nobility, heroic deeds ASD
eornost n earnest; duel, battle GED
gerennan vb to cause to coagulate W7
iernan, iornan vb.str to run, flow GED
irnan, arn, urnon, urnen vb.str to run, flow ASD
rǣran n rear W7
rennan vb to cause to run W7
rinnan, rann, runnon, runnen vb.str to run, flow ASD/GED
rīsan, rās, rison, risen vb.str to rise ASD/W7
rīð n.masc rill, brook, rivulet GED
ryne n.masc run, stream GED
rynel n runnel W7
Northumbrian: aron are AHD
arrīsa vb.intrans to arise CDC
art(h) art CDC
Middle English: are are LRC
arisen vb to arise W7
art, ert art CDC/W7
deriven vb to derive W7
erl n earl W7
ernest n earnest W7
orient n orient W7
origine n origin W7
raisen vb to raise W7
rennen vb to cause to coagulate W7
rennet n rennet W7
reren vb to rear W7
rinel n runnel W7
rinnen, ronnen vb to run W7
risen vb to rise W7
romen vb to roam W7
English: abort vb to bring forth premature/stillborn offspring AHD/W7
are (thou) be AHD/W7
are (we/you/they) be AHD/W7
arise, arose, arisen vb.str.intrans to rise, get up AHD/W7
Arod prop.n Legolas' horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
art (thou) are AHD/W7
derive vb to take/receive, esp. from specified source AHD/W7
Dimrill prop.n high pass in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
earl n nobleman LRC
earnest n intent/serious mental state AHD/W7
Eorl prop.n 1st Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Eorlingas prop.n a.k.a. Rohirrim in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Gilrain prop.n Gondor river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hormogonium n portion of cyanobacterium filament AHD
hormone n biological product circulating in sap/body fluid stimulating cell activity AHD/W7
orient n the east, eastern lands/regions AHD/W7
orient vb.trans to cause to face/point east AHD/W7
oriental adj eastern, re: orient W7
origin n parentage, ancestry AHD/W7
original adj first, preceding all others AHD
raise vb to cause/help to rise to upright position AHD/W7
rear vb to construct, erect by building AHD/W7
rennet n stomach contents of unweaned animal AHD/W7
Rhine prop.n major European transportation river LRC
rill n very small brook AHD/W7
rill n channel made by small stream AHD/W7
rise, rose, risen vb.str.intrans to assume upright position AHD/W7
rival n one striving to reach/obtain something that only one can possess AHD/W7
rivulet n brook, small stream AHD/W7
roam vb to wander, go without direction IEW/W7
run, ran, run vb.str to move on foot faster than walking speed AHD/W7
run n creek, stream GED
runnel n streamlet, rivulet AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: blōd-rene n run, course ASD
renna vb.wk to cause to run GED
rinna vb.str to run, flow GED
rīsa vb to rise ASD
run n.masc run, stream GED
Frisian: ril n rill OED
Dutch: Rijn prop.n Rhine river LRC
ril n rill W7
Old Saxon: erl n.masc earl, man, male offspring ASD
rennian vb.wk to cause to run GED
rīð n.masc brook GED
rinnan vb.str to run, flow GED
rīsan vb to rise ASD
Low German: rille n rill W7
Old High German: ar-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
ernust n.str earnest, firmness GED
ir-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
rennan vb.wk to cause to run GED
rinnan vb.str to run, flow GED
rīsan vb to rise W7
rōr(a) n reed, cane KDW
run n.masc run, stream GED
ur-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
Middle High German: ernest n.str.masc earnest; battle GED
German: Ernst n.masc earnest LRC
rennen vb to run LRC
Rhein prop.n Rhine river LRC
Rille n.fem rill W7
rinnen vb to flow, run LRC
Rohr n.neut reed, cane, pipe, tube, duct LRC
Röhre n.fem pipe; canal, channel, conduit TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ert thou art W7
eru they are W7
erum we are W7
jarl n.masc earl, free-born man, gentleman LRC
reisa(t) vb to raise, set up LRC
renna vb.wk to cause to run LRC
reyrr n reed LRC
rinna vb.str to run LRC
ördugr, örðigr adj quick, swift; ready, prepared ASD
Old Icelandic: ern adj able, energetic GED
rinna vb.str to run, flow GED
runi n.masc run, stream GED
Icelandic: earl, jarl n.masc earl, chief, warrior, gentleman ASD
renna, rinna vb to run, flow ASD
rīsa vb to rise ASD
runi n flux, stream ASD
Danish: er vb.anom am/are/is, are TLL
rør n pipe TLL
Swedish: rör n pipe TLL
är am, are, is TLL
äro are TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *and-rinnan vb.str.V to debate, dispute, discuss GED
arniba adv certain GED
*at-rinnan vb.str.V to run, come up GED
*bi-rinnan vb.str.V to surround, gather round GED
*du-rinnan vb.str.V to approach, run up GED
*fair-rinnan vb.str.V to reach, extend to GED
*faur-rinnan vb.str.V to precede, go before GED
garuns n.str.fem street LRC
raus n reed, stalk KGW
*rinnan vb.str.V to run, walk, go GED
runs n run, course ASD
urreisan vb.str.I to arise LRC
urrinnan vb.str.III to rise, come from, go forth LRC
Latin: aborior, aborīrī, abortus vb to perish by untimely birth, disappear W7
aborto, abortāre vb to miscarry W7
derivo, derivāre vb to float away W7
exorior, exorīrī, exortus vb.dep to arise, appear LRC
oriens, orientis vb.pres.ptc rising W7
origo, originis n.fem rising, beginning W7
orior, orīri vb.dep to rise, get up, be born W7
rivalis adj of a stream W7
rivulus n.masc small stream W7
rīvus n.masc brook, stream W7
Middle French: dériver vb to derive, be washed away W7
orient n.masc the East W7
orienter vb to orient, guide W7
origine n.fem origin, beginning W7
rival adj rival W7
French: orienter vb to orient, guide W7
Italian: rivoletto n.masc rivulet W7
rivolo n.masc rivulet, brook W7
Old Church Slavonic: ratь n battle GED
rinǫti vb to thrust GED
rěka n.fem river LRC
Russian: ronítь vb to let fall GED
Albanian: jerm n delirium GED
Homeric Greek: ὄρνῡμι vb to move, awake, arise, arouse LRC
Greek: ἀνατέλλειν vb to make (the sun) rise GED
ἀπέρχομαι vb to go back LRC
εἰσέρχομαι vb to enter LRC
ἐξέρχομαι vb.dep to come out LRC
ἐρίζω vb to quarrel LRC
ἔρις n.fem strife LRC
ἔρχομαι vb to come, go LRC
ὀρίνω vb to stir GED
hormē n.fem impulse, assault W7
hormōn vb.ptc assaulting W7
ὄρνυμαι vb to begin GED
προσέρχομαι vb to come to LRC
συνέρχομαι vb.dep to unite, come together LRC
Hittite: ar-ai-, ar-iya- vb to rise, raise, rouse LRC
ar-i vb to arrive LRC
ar-nu-mi vb to bring, set in motion LRC
Classical Armenian: ordi n son LRC
Armenian: ari vb to arise, get up LRC
yarnem vb to rise, get up GED
Avestan: ar- vb to move, reach, raise LRC
Sanskrit: ara adj quick ASD
iyarti vb to set in motion GED
irya adj agile, energetic GED
r̥ṇóti vb to stir, move, arise LRC
r̥ṇváti vb to move, arise GED
r̥ti- n attack, battle GED
rayas n flood GED
ríṇvati vb to cause to flow GED
rināti vb to cause to flow GED
rī́yate vb to begin to flow GED
Tocharian B: er- vb to cease, abandon, come to an end LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
I=class 1
III=class 3
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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