Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. er-, er-t-, er-u̯-   'earth'

Semantic Field(s): Earth, Land


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: eard n.masc earth; home, native country ASD
eorþ(e) n.fem earth ASD
middan-eard n.masc middle dwelling, lit. middle-earth ASD
Middle English: erthe n earth W7
English: aardvark n nocturnal ant-eating African mammal AHD/W7
aardwolf n carrion-eating SE African mammal AHD/W7
earth n our world; soil, land, ground AHD/W7
earthen adj made of earth-soil W7
Middle-earth prop.n world setting in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: aerde n earth AHD
Dutch: aard n.masc nature, temper ASD
aarde n earth TLL
Afrikaans: aard n earth W7
aardvark n aardvark W7
aardwolf n aardwolf W7
Old Saxon: ard n.masc home, dwelling ASD
Old High German: art n.fem plow ASD
erda n.fem earth W7
Middle High German: art n nature ASD
German: Art n.fem kind, nature ASD
Erde n.fem earth LRC
irden adj earthen TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: jǫrð n.fem earth LRC
Danish: jord n earth TLL
Swedish: jord n earth TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: aírþa n.str.fem earth LRC
Greek: eraze adv to the ground W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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