Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. er-, erə-, thematic (e)r-ĕ-   'loose, crumbly'

Semantic Field(s): Weak, Infirm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: eremite n hermit W7
rethina n retina W7
English: eremite n hermit, religious recluse AHD/W7
hermit n recluse, one who leaves society/lives in solitude AHD/W7
ratite adj having flat breastbone AHD/W7
reseau n photographed lines forming small standard squares AHD/W7
rete n plexus, network of blood vessels/nerves AHD/W7
retiary adj re: net/web AHD
reticle n lines/dots/wires/cross hairs in focus of optical eyepiece AHD/W7
reticular adj netlike, re: net AHD
reticule n reticle AHD/W7
retiform adj reticular, composed of interstices/crossing lines AHD/W7
retina n sensory membrane of eye, connected to brain AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Eremit n.masc hermit LRC
Latin: ratis n.fem raft W7
ratitus adj/vb.ptc marked with the figure of a raft W7
rete n.neut net W7
reticulum n.neut net W7
Late Latin: eremita n.masc hermit W7
Medieval Latin: retina n.fem retina W7
New Latin: retiformis adj net-shaped W7
Old French: eremite n.masc hermit W7
rais n.masc net W7
resel n.masc net, network W7
French: réseau n.masc net, network W7
réticule n.masc (hair) net, small handbag W7
Lithuanian: rẽtas, retà adj rare LRC
rėtis n.masc sieve LD/W7
Greek: erēmia n.fem desert W7
erēmitēs adj living in the desert W7
ἔρημος adj/n.fem solitary; desert LRC
Late Greek: erēmitēs n.masc hermit W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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