Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. erə-, rē-   'to rest, be still'

Semantic Field(s): to Cease, Quiet (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ærn, ræn, ren, ern n.neut house, dwelling GED/ASD
ræsn n.neut beam, board GED
rest n.fem rest, quiet, freedom from toil LRC
restan vb.wk to rest, repose ASD
Middle English: rest n rest W7
resten vb to rest, repose LRC
English: rest n sleep, repose W7
rest vb to sleep, cease from toil W7
unrest n turmoil, disturbed/uneasy state W7
Zugunruhe prop.n migratory drive in animals AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: fīa-ern n animal barn GED
resta vb to rest ASD
Old Saxon: resta, rasta n couch, resting place ASD
restian vb to rest ASD
Old High German: rasta, resti n rest W7/ASD
restan vb to rest ASD
ruowa n rest, calm W7
unruowa n unrest AHD
Middle High German: ruowe n rest AHD
unruowe n unrest AHD
German: rasten vb to rest LRC
Ruhe n.fem rest, calm, peace, quiet, stillness LRC
Unruhe n.fem unrest, disturbance LRC
Zugunruhe n.fem Zugunruhe AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: grend n neighborhood KNW
Old Icelandic: granni, granna n.masc/fem neighbor GED
rann n.neut house, dwelling GED
Icelandic: rann n house ASD
röst n stage (in journey) ASD
Swedish: gränd n lane SAO
roa vb to rest; amuse oneself TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ga-razna n.masc neighbor GED
*ga-razno n.fem neighbor GED
rasta n mile ASD
razn n.neut inn, house, lodging GED
Greek: ἐρωή n.fem rest, respite LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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