Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: es-   'is, to be'

Semantic Field(s): to Live; Living; Life


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: am, at, is am, are, is LRC
Old English: eom, (e)am, is vb.anom.1/ am, is AHD/ASD
gēse, gese, gise, gyse adv yes ASD/W7
prūd adj proud, arrogant ASD/W7
sind(on) are LRC
sōð adj/n.neut sooth W7
sōð-gi(e)d n.neut sooth, lit. true tale ASD
sōðian vb.wk to soothe ASD/W7
synn n sin W7
Middle English: absent adj absent W7
am, is vb.anom.1/ am, is LRC
essence n essence W7
interesse, interest n interest W7
present adj present W7
presenten vb to present W7
proud adj proud W7
quintessence n quintessence W7
representen vb to represent W7
sinne n sin W7
sooth n sooth W7
sothen vb to soothe W7
yes adv yes W7
English: abessive adj (grammatical case) re: absence AHD
absent adj missing, not present/attending AHD/W7
adessive adj (grammatical case) re: adjacency AHD
am, is vb.anom.1/ to be, exist, become AHD/W7
bodhisattva n being who refrains from entering nirvana to save others AHD/W7
entity n existence, being AHD/W7
essence n permanent as contrasted with accidental element of being AHD/W7
essive adj (grammatical case) re: temporary state/capacity AHD
inessive adj not essive AHD
interest n right/title/legal share AHD/W7
ossia conj or else AHD
Parousia prop.n Second Coming of Christ (Christianity) LRC
present adj now existing/in progress AHD/W7
present vb to bring/introduce into someone's presence AHD/W7
proud adj feeling/showing pride AHD/W7
Proudfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
quintessence n fifth, highest essence in ancient/medieval philosophy AHD/W7
represent vb to present, bring clearly before AHD/W7
schizont n sporozoan cell segmented by schizogony AHD
sin n offense against God AHD/W7
sooth adj/n true; truth AHD/W7
soothe vb to prove/declare/verify truth AHD/OED
suttee n act/custom of Hindu widow cremating herself on husband's funeral pyre to show devotion AHD/W7
swastika n symbol/ornament: Greek cross with arm ends bent at same right angle AHD/W7
yes adv (expressing assent/agreement) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: sende n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
Dutch: zij be! TLL
zijn vb.anom to be TLL
zijn are TLL
zijnd vb.anom.pres.ptc being TLL
Old Saxon: sōð adj/n sooth ASD
sundia n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
Old High German: sand adj true W7
sīn vb.anom to be W7
sunta n sin, fault, crime, misdeed ASD/W7
German: ist is LRC
sei vb.anom.2/ be! let be TLL
seid (you) are TLL
seiend vb.anom.pres.ptc being
sein vb.anom to be TLL
sind are LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: em, est, es am, are, is LRC
esum, esuþ, esu are LRC
sandr n sand; beach, shore LRC
Icelandic: saðr, sannr adj sooth ASD
sanna vb to prove, make good ASD
synd n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: im, is, ist am, are, is LRC
sijau, sijais, sijai may be TLL
sijum, sijuþ, sind are LRC
sunja n.str.fem sooth LRC
Old Latin: siem, sies, siet may be TLL
Latin: absens, absentis adj absent W7
absum, abesse vb to be absent W7
desum, deesse, defuī vb to be lacking LRC
ens adj/vb.ptc existing W7
eram, eras, erat was, were TLL
ero, eris, erit will be TLL
esse vb.anom.inf to be LRC
essentia n.fem essence W7
intersum, interesse, interfuī vb to concern, lie between LRC
praesens, praesentis adj/vb.ptc present, helping, attending W7
praesento, praesentare vb to show, present W7
praesum, praesse, praefui vb to be before, have charge of, preside over LRC
prosum, prodesse vb to be advantageous W7
repraesento, repraesentare vb to represent W7
sum, es, est am, are, is LRC
sumus, estis, sunt are LRC
Late Latin: prode n.neut advantage W7
Medieval Latin: entitas n.fem entity, whole W7
Spanish: ser vb.anom to be TLL
somos, sois, son are TLL
soy, eres, es am, are, is TLL
Old French: present adj present, attending, being there W7
presenter vb to show, present, introduce W7
prod, prud adj proud W7
prou adj/n.masc good, capable; advantage W7
Anglo-French: interesse n.masc interest W7
Middle French: absent adj absent W7
essence n.fem essence W7
representer vb to represent W7
French: être vb.anom to be TLL
sommes, êtes, sont are TLL
suis, es, est am, are, is TLL
Italian: essere vb.anom to be TLL
ossia conj or else, that is AHD
senza prep without, in the absence of TLL
sia is, be AHD
siamo, siete, sono are TLL
sono, sei, am, are, is TLL
Lithuanian: esmì, esì, estì am, are, is LRC
Old Church Slavonic: jes-, jesmь, jesi vb to be LRC
Albanian: jam vb to be IEW
Greek: ἐξετάζω vb to inquire LRC
ἐξουσία n.fem power LRC
ἐσθλόν adj good LRC
εσμι, εἶ(ς), ἐστί am, are, is LRC
eteos adj true W7
pareinai vb to be present W7
Parousia n.fem Parousia W7
parōn, parontos vb.pres.ptc present W7
Hittite: esmeni, esteni, asanzi are LRC
esmi, essi, eszi am, are, is LRC
Classical Armenian: em, es, e am, are, is LRC
Sanskrit: ásmi, ási, ásti am, are, is LRC
bodhisattva n one whose essence is enlightenment W7
satī n wife who performs suttee, lit. good woman W7
sat adj true, good W7
sattva n being W7
smá, sthá, sánti are LRC
syā́m, syā́s, syā́t may be TLL
svasti n welfare W7
svastika n swatika, symbol in shape thereof W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
fut=future (tense)
imp=imperative (mood)
impf=imperfect (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
opt=optative (mood)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
subj=subjunctive (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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