Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ēudh-, ōudh-, ūdh-   'udder'

Semantic Field(s): Udder of Animals


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ūder n udder W7
Middle English: exuberant adj exuberant W7
udder n udder W7
English: exuberant adj joyously unrestrained/enthusiastic AHD/W7
exuberate vb to overflow; be exuberant AHD/W7
udder n large pendulous organ enclosing multiple mammary glands, each with single nipple AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Dutch: u(y)der n breast, udder ASD
Dutch: uijer n breast, udder ASD
Old High German: ūtar, ūtiro n breast, udder W7/ASD
Middle High German: ūter, iuter n breast, udder ASD
German: Euter n.neut udder LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: jūgr n breast, udder ASD
Danish: yver n breast, udder ASD
Latin: exuberans vb.ptc abundant W7
exubero, exuberāre vb to be abundant W7
uber adj/n.neut fruitful; breast W7
Middle French: exuberant adj abundant, demonstrative W7
Greek: outhar n.neut breast W7
Sanskrit: ūdhar n udder W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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