Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: euk-   'to accustom oneself, be used to'

Semantic Field(s): Custom, Usage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: to-ucc- vb to understand GED
Scots Gaelic: twig I understand W7
English: twig vb to notice, observe AHD/W7
uxorial adj re: wife AHD/W7
uxoricide n murder of wife by her husband AHD/W7
uxorious adj excessively fond of/submissive to wife AHD/W7
East Germanic  
Gothic: bi-uhti n.neut custom GED
bi-uhts adj accustomed GED
Latin: uxor n.fem wife W7
uxorius adj uxorious, uxorial, of a wife W7
Medieval Latin: uxoricidium n.neut killing of a wife by her husband W7
Lithuanian: jùnkti vb to become accustomed GED
Old Church Slavonic: vyknǫti vb to become accustomed GED
učenikъ n.masc student, disciple LRC
učitelь n.masc teacher LRC
učiti, učǫ, učiši vb to teach LRC
Classical Armenian: usanim vb to learn, become accustomed to LRC
Sogdian: yǥwtčh adj accustomed GED
Sanskrit: úcyati vb to be accustomed (to) GED
ókas n dwelling GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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