Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. gel-   'to curl, form into ball; round'

Semantic Field(s): Round (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: elain n hind GED
Gaulish: galba n very fat man GED
Old English: æt-clīðende vb.pres.ptc adhering LRC
cælf, calfur n calf (bovine) GED
calf, ce(a)lf n calf (bovine) GED
ceolbor n.fem female lamb GED
ceolbor-lomb n.neut female lamb GED
cild n.neut child W7/IEW
clǣg n clay W7
clāþ n.masc cloth, [pl.] clothes KEW/ASD
clawu n.fem claw, hoof IEW
*clēat n cleat W7
cliewe, clywe n.fem clew IEW/ASD
cli(e)wen, clywen, cleowen n.neut clew, globe IEW/ASD
clif, clyf, cleof n.neut cliff, rock RPN/ASD
clim(b)an, climmian vb to climb W7/ASD
climman vb to clamber IEW
clingan, clang, clungon, clungen vb.str to cling IEW/ASD
cli(o)fian, clyfian, cleofian vb to cleave W7/ASD
clodd n clod IEW
clūd n.masc hill, mass of rock RPN/ASD
clūt n.masc clout, patch, piece of metal IEW/ASD
clyccan vb to clutch IEW/W7
colt n.masc colt IEW/ASD
(g)ealla n.masc gall, sore on horse ODE/ASD
Middle English: calf n calf W7
child n child W7
clambren vb to clamber W7
claspe n clasp W7
clawe n claw W7
clay n clay W7
clenchen vb to clench W7
clete n cleat, wedge W7
clevien vb to cleave W7
clewe n clew W7
clif n cliff W7
climben vb to climb W7
clingen vb to cling W7
clod n clod W7
cloth n cloth W7
clout n clout W7
clubbe n club W7
clucchen vb to clutch W7
culp(e) n kelp W2I
galle n gall W7
glu n glue W7
English: agglutinate vb to fasten, cause to adhere AHD/W7
calf, calves n young bovine(s) W7
calf n hind part of leg below knee W7
child, children n infant, young person IEW/W7
clamber vb to climb, scramble up IEW
clammy adj damp soft and sticky IEW/W7
clasp n hook/device for holding things together W7
clasp vb to grasp, embrace, fasten with clasp IEW/W7
claw n sharp nail on toe of animal IEW/W7
clay n earthy material: plastic if moist but hard after firing AHD/W7
cleat n wedge-like fitting/fastener IEW/W7
cleave, clove, clave vb.str/wk to cling, stick, adhere W7
clench, clinch vb to clasp, fasten, ball (the fist) IEW
clew n ball of thread/string/yarn IEW/W7
cliff n precipice, steep rock face/slope RPN/ODE
climb vb to rise, go/slope upward W7
cling, clung vb.str to hold, adhere IEW/W7
clod n lump/mass of earth/clay IEW/W7
cloth n pliable fabric W7
clothes garments LRC
clothing n clothes W7
cloud n billowy fog/mist/haze in sky IEW/W7
clout n rag, piece of cloth/leather IEW/W7
club n heavy stick, tapering staff IEW/W7
clutch vb to grasp/hold with hand/claws IEW/W7
colt n foal, young (male) horse IEW/W7
conglutinate vb to unite via gummy substance AHD/W7
deglutinate vb to unglue; loosen, separate AHD/CDC
eland n African antelope GED
gall n flaw; skin sore due to chafing W7
gall n plant tissue swelling due to parasite W7
gall vb to chafe, wear; vex, irritate W7
gallnut n (plant) gall resembling nut W7
gley n sticky clay under surface of waterlogged soils AHD/W7
gliadin n simple protein found in grain AHD/W7
globe n something round/spherical W7
glue n protein with adhesive properties AHD/W7
gluten n elastic protein in flour giving dough cohesiveness AHD/W7
glutinous adj gluey, gummy AHD/W7
kelp n (ashes of) seaweed IEW/W2I
klipspringer n small agile African antelope AHD
klutz n clumsy/stupid person LRC
mesoglea n gelatinous substance between endoderm/ectoderm AHD/W7
neuroglia n supporting tissue intermingled with.essential elements of nervous tissue esp. in.brain, spinal cord, and ganglia AHD/W7
zooglea n mass formed by bacteria in fluid rich in organic material AHD/W7
Scots English: claith, clayth n cloth ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: klad, klath, kleth n.neut cloth ASD
klai n clay ASD
Frisian: klaed n cloth ASD
klaey n clay ASD
Old Frankish: calf n calf (bovine) GED
Middle Dutch: galle n gall, sore on horse ODE
klippe n cliff, rock AHD
Dutch: eland n elk, eland GED
kalf n calf (bovine) TLL
klauw n claw TLL
kleed n.neut cloth ASD
kleeren n clothes TLL
kleeven vb to cleave, adhere ASD
klei n.fem clay ASD
klip n.fem cliff, rock ASD
kloot n.masc clod, rock, hill ASD
kl(o)uwen n.neut clew ASD
kluit n.fem rock, hill ASD
Afrikaans: klipspringer n klipspringer AHD
Old Saxon: clif, klif n.neut cliff RPN/ASD
klibōn vb to cleave, adhere ASD
Middle Low German: galle n gall, sore on horse ODE
Low German: klint n cliff, rock RPN
Old High German: chalb n.str.neut calf (bovine) GED
chalba n.fem female calf GED
chalbire calf (bovine) GED
clep n cliff, rock ASD
cliuwi n.neut clew ASD
kilbur n.neut female lamb GED
kilburra n.fem female lamb GED
klāftra n.fem fathom GED
klebēn, klebjan vb to cleave, adhere ASD
kliuwa n.fem clew ASD
klīwa n bran W7
kloz n.masc clod, lump, mass ASD
Middle High German: galle n gall, flaw, fault ODE
kleit n.neut cloth ASD
kliuwel n.neut clew ASD
klōz n.masc clod, lump, block ASD
German: Kalb n.neut calf (bovine) LRC
Klafter n.masc fathom LRC
Klaue n claw TLL
Klei, Klai n.masc clay ASD
kle(i)ben vb to cleave, adhere ASD
Kleid n.neut cloth; frock, dress ASD/TLL
Kleider clothes TLL
Klippe n.fem cliff, crag, rock RPN/ASD
klosz n.masc rock, hill ASD
Klotz n.masc brick, block; klutz LRC
Yiddish: klots n klutz LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: galli n gall, flaw, fault ODE
kleggi n.masc clay ASD
klubba n club, cudgel IEW
Old Icelandic: kalfi n.masc calf (of leg) GED
kalfr n.masc calf (bovine) GED
klāpr n.masc box GED
kleif n cliff, ridge RPN
klettr n cliff, rock RPN
klé n stone to steady a loom RPN
klif n cliff RPN
klǫpp n stepping-stone GED
Icelandic: klif n.neut cliff ASD
klōt n.neut knob on sword's hilt ASD
klæði n.neut cloth ASD
Danish: kalv n calf (bovine) TLL
klippe n.masc/fem cliff, rock ASD
klo n claw TLL
klode n.masc/fem clod, ball ASD
klæder clothes TLL
kläde n.neut cloth ASD
kläg, kleg n clay ASD
Middle Swedish: galle n gall, flaw, fault ODE
Swedish: kalv n calf (bovine) TLL
klippa n.fem cliff, rock ASD
klo n claw TLL
klot n.neut clod, rock, hill ASD
kläde n.neut cloth ASD
kläder clothes TLL
klädning n dress, clothing TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: inkilþō adj with child LRC
*kalbo n.fem calf (bovine) GED
Latin: agglutino, agglutinare, agglutinavi, agglutinatus vb to glue to W7
conglutino, conglutinare, conglutinavi, conglutinatus vb to glue together W7
galla n.fem gall(nut) IEW
gleba n.fem clump of earth GED
globus n.masc globe, heap GED
gluten n.neut glue W7
glutino, glutināre vb to glue W7
glutinosus adj having consistency of glue W7
Late Latin: glūs, glūtis n.fem glue W7
New Latin: neuroglia n.fem supporting tissue intermingled with the essential elements of nervous tissue W7
zooglea n.fem gelatinous mass of bacteria growing fluid W7
Spanish: galla n gall(nut) ODE
Old French: galle n gall(nut) ODE
galler vb to gall, rub, scratch ODE
Middle French: globe n globe W7
glu n.fem glue W7
glutineux adj glutinous W7
Italian: gala n gall(nut) ODE
Lithuanian: élnis n deer GED
glėbti vb to embrace, surround GED
Polish: głaz n rock RPN
Russian: glaz n stone RPN
gleĭ n clay W7
Greek: ἔλαφος n deer GED
Late Greek: glia n.fem glue W7
gloios n.masc glue W7
Medieval Greek: gloea n.fem glue W7
Armenian: ełn n hind GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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