Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. gel-, and gel-   'to glut, devour, envelop'

Semantic Field(s): to Eat, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cēol, cīol n.masc keel, ship ASD
ceole, ciole n.fem jowl, throat IEW/ASD
Middle English: cholle n jowl, throat W7
glotoun n glutton W7
glouten vb to glut W7
golet n gullet W7
goules gules W7
kele n keel W7
English: deglutition n swallowing AHD/W7
glut vb to satiate, fill with food AHD/W7
glutton n one who eats too much AHD/W7
goliard n wandering student/minstrel of 12th/13th century AHD/W7
gular adj re: throat AHD/W7
gules heraldic color red AHD/W7
gullet n esophagus AHD/W7
jowl n slack flesh on throat/lower jaw AHD/W7
keel n longitudinal plate/timber along bottom center of boat/ship AHD/W7
keel n freight barge AHD/W7
keelhaul vb.trans to haul under ship's keel as torture/punishment AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: kiel n keel AHD
Dutch: keel n.fem jowl, throat ASD
kiel n.fem keel ASD
Old High German: chiol, cheol, chiel n.masc keel ASD
këla n.fem jowl, throat ASD
Middle High German: kël n.fem jowl, throat ASD
kiel n.masc keel ASD
German: Kehle n.fem jowl, throat ASD
Kiel n.masc keel ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kjölr n keel (timber) W7
Icelandic: kjōll n.masc keel ASD
Danish: kiöl n.masc/fem keel ASD
Swedish: köl n.masc keel ASD
Latin: deglutio, deglutire, deglutivi, deglutitus vb to swallow down W7
glūto, glūtōnis n.masc glutton W7
glūt(t)io, glūt(t)ire vb to swallow W7
gula n.fem jowl, throat, gullet IEW
Old French: gloton n.masc glutton W7
Middle French: goule n.fem jowl, throat, gullet W7
goulet n.masc.dim jowl, throat, gullet W7
French: déglutition n.fem deglutition W7
goliard n goliard W7
Sanskrit: gala n.masc jowl, throat, gullet ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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