Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. gel(ə)-   'cool, cold; to keel, freeze'

Semantic Field(s): Cold, Frigid


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: calan vb to freeze, be cold GED/RPN
c(e)ald adj/n.neut cold GED/RPN/ASD
cēlan vb to keel RPN
cieldu n.fem cold, chill GED
c(i)ele n.masc chill, cold GED
cielian vb to be cold, chilly RPN
cōl adj cool GED/RPN
cōlian vb to become cool/cold RPN
Middle English: chile n cold, frost W7
chillen vb to chill W7
cold adj cold W7
congelen vb to congeal W7
gelly n jelly W7
kelen vb to keel W7
English: chill n sensation of coldness IEW/W7
chill vb to become cold AHD/W7
cold adj re: temperature notably below norm AHD/W7
cold n condition of low temperature; illness, disease W7
congeal vb to change from fluid to solid when cold AHD/W7
cool adj moderately cold, lacking heat AHD/W7
cool vb to make/become cool W7
gelatin n glutinous material obtained by boiling animal tissue AHD/W7
gelation n action/process of freezing AHD/W7
gelid adj icy, extremely cold AHD/W7
glace adj made/finished to have smooth glossy surface AHD/W7
glacial adj frigid, extremely cold AHD/W7
glaciate vb to freeze AHD/W7
glacier n large ice body moving slowly downhill AHD/W7
glacis n incline, gentle slope AHD/W7
jelly n food with soft elastic consistency AHD/W7
keel vb to cool AHD/W7
verglas n thin ice film on rock AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kald adj cold GED/RPN
kela vb to cool, be cold ASD
Dutch: koel adj cool ASD
koelen vb to cool, be cold ASD
koud adj cold ASD
verkoudheid n cold: illness TLL
Old Saxon: kald adj cold GED/RPN
kōlōn vb to cool, be cold ASD
Middle Low German: külde n cold GED
Old High German: kalt, chalt adj cold GED/ASD
kuol(i), chuoli adj cool W7/GED
kuoljan vb to cool, be cold ASD
Middle High German: kalt adj cold ASD
küele adj cool ASD
kuolēn vb to cool, be cold ASD
New High German: kalt adj cold RPN
kühl adj cool RPN
German: Erkältung n cold: illness TLL
kühlen vb to cool, be cold ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kala vb to freeze, be(come) cold LRC
Old Icelandic: kalda vb to become cold RPN
kaldr adj cold GED/RPN
kelda n spring, brook GED
klaki n hard-frozen ground RPN
kólna vb to become cold RPN
kul n.neut breeze, gust of wind GED/RPN
kuldi n.masc cold GED
kylr n gust of cold air RPN
Icelandic: kala vb to cool, be cold ASD
kaldr adj cold ASD
Danish: forkølelse n cold: illness TLL
kilde n water spring TLL
koele vb to cool, be cold ASD
kold adj cold ASD
köl(ig) adj cool ASD
Swedish: förkylning n cold: illness TLL
kall adj cold ASD
koela vb to cool, be cold ASD
kylig adj cool ASD
källa n water spring TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *kalds adj cold GED/RPN
Latin: congelo, congelare vb to freeze, to harden W7
gelatio, gelationis n.fem action of freezing W7
gelidus adj cold, icy-cold, frosty RPN
gelo, gelare, gelavi, gelatus vb to (cause to) freeze, congeal W7
gelu, gelūs n.neut cold, frost, ice W7
glacialis adj icy W7
glacies n.fem icicle W7
glacio, glaciare vb to freeze W7
Old French: verre-glaz n.masc glass ice, thin ice film on rock W7
Middle French: congeler vb to freeze W7
gelé vb.ptc frosted, frozen W7
gelee n.fem frost W7
geler vb to freeze, congeal W7
glace n.fem ice W7
French: gélatine n.fem edible jelly, gelatin W7
glace n.fem ice W7
glacer vb to freeze, ice, glaze W7
glacis n.masc glacis, glaze W7
verglas n.masc cold rain freezing as thin ice W7
Italian: gelare vb to freeze W7
gelatina n.fem gelatin W7
gelato n.masc ice, ice-cream W7/CID
Lithuanian: száltas adj cold ASD
Sanskrit: jala adj cold ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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