Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gen-   'to pinch, press together, etc.'

Semantic Field(s): to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: cnap n knop, top ASD
Gaelic: cna(i)p n.masc knop, top ASD
Welsh: cnap n knop, top ASD
Old English: cnæp(p), cnep n.masc knap, knop ASD/W7
cnedan vb to knead W7
cnīf n.masc knife ASD/W7
cnocian vb to knock W7
cnoll n.masc knoll ASD/W7
-cnoppa sfx knob W7
cnotta n.masc knot ASD/W7
cnyccean vb to tie, bundle W2I
cnyll(s)an vb to knell ASD/W7
cnys(s)an, cnysede, cnysed vb.wk.I to beat, strike ASD
cnyttan, cnittan vb.wk to knit, tie with knot ASD/W7
cnyttels n string, sinew RPN
Middle English: knap n knap, summit W7
knappen vb to hit, strike W7
knarre n knar AHD
kneden vb to knead W7
knellen vb to knell W7
knif n knife W7
knitten vb to knit W7
knobbe n knob W7
knokel n knuckle W7
knoken vb to knock W7
knol n knoll W7
knollen vb to knoll, resound W7
knop n knop W7
knopwed n knapweed W7
knorre n knur W7
knot n knot W7
knucche, knytche n knitch IEW/W2I
wed n weed W7
English: gnarl n hard tree proterbance with twisted grain W7
gnarl vb to deform by twisting AHD/W7
gnocchi flour/potato/semolina dumplings AHD
knackwurst n short thick seasoned sausage AHD
knap n summit, crest of hill AHD/W7
knap vb.trans to rap, knock AHD/W7
knapsack n canvas/leather bag/case strapped on back AHD/W7
knapweed n weedy composite plant AHD/W7
kna(u)r n knot/burl in tree/wood AHD
knead vb.trans to work/press into mass with hands AHD/W7
knell vb to ring/toll, esp. for death/funeral/disaster AHD/W7
knife, knives n.str cutting tool(s): sharp blade(s) attached to handle(s) AHD/W7
knit, knit vb.wk to tie together, esp. using needles AHD/W7
knitch n.obs fagot, bundle IEW/W2I
knob n lump, rounded protuberance AHD/W7
knobkerrie n short club with knobbed end AHD
knock vb to strike with sharp blow AHD/W7
knoll n mound, small round hill AHD/W7
knoll vb to knell AHD/W7
knop n ornamental knob AHD/W7
knot n thread/string/rope tied to form lump/knob AHD/W7
knout n whip for flogging criminals AHD/W7
knuckle n rounded prominence formed by ends of adjacent bones at joint AHD/W7
knur n gnarl, hard excrescence AHD/W7
knurl n knot, knob, small protuberance AHD
Morgul-knife prop.n Nazgûl's knife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Nob prop.n Bree hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
nub n knob, protuberance, small lump AHD
quenelle n forcemeat ball/dumpling: seasoned paste of chopped veal/chicken/etc. AHD/CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: knap, knop n.masc knop, top ASD
Frisian: kniesen vb to bruise ASD
knotte n knot ASD
knyf n knife ASD
Middle Dutch: cnoppe n knob AHD
knorre n knar AHD
Dutch: knappen vb to knap, eat W7
knapzak n knapsack W7
knēden vb to knead ASD
kneuzen vb to bruise ASD
knol n.masc knoll ASD
knoop n button TLL
knop n.masc knop, top ASD
knot n.fem knot ASD
knotten vb to tie in a knot ASD
Afrikaans: knopkierie n knobkerrie AHD
Middle Low German: knīf n knife W7
knorre n knar AHD
knubbe n knob W7
knutten vb to tie RPN
Low German: knappsack n knapsack W7
Old High German: knetan vb to knead W7
knoph n.masc knop, top ASD
knoto, knodo n.masc knot ASD/W7
knusjan, kimssan vb to beat, shake ASD
Middle High German: erknellen vb to toll W7
knëten vb to knead ASD
knillen, knüllen vb to beat ASD
knoche n bone IEW
knochen vb to press W7
knöckel n knuckle W7
knode, knote n.masc knot ASD
knolle n knoll ASD
knopf n.masc knop, top ASD
knüs(s)en vb to push, beat ASD
New High German: knicken vb to fold, crack, snap RPN
knütten vb.dial to knit RPN
German: knacken vb to crack AHD
Knackwurst n knackwurst AHD
knallen, knellen vb to knell ASD
Kneif n.masc knife ASD
kneten vb to knead ASD
Knöchel n.masc knuckle LRC
Knochen n.masc bone LRC
Knolle(n) n.masc knoll ASD
Knopf n.masc knop, button ASD
knoten, knöten vb to tie in a knot ASD
Knote(n) n.masc knot ASD
knüssen vb to push, beat ASD
Nußknacker n.masc nutcracker LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: knifr n knife LRC
knollr n mountaintop W7
knúta n.fem knuckle-bone LRC
knūtr n knot W7
Old Icelandic: kneikja vb to bend backwards with force RPN
knytja vb to knit, tie together RPN
knýta vb to knit, tie, bind RPN
Icelandic: knappr n.masc knop, top ASD
knifr n.masc knife ASD
knoða vb to knead ASD
knosa vb to bruise, beat ASD
knūtr n.masc knot ASD
knylla vb to beat with a blunt weapon ASD
knytja vb to knit together ASD
Danish: knalde vb to knell ASD
knap n.masc/fem knop, top ASD
knede vb to knead ASD
kniv n.masc/fem knife ASD
knokkel n bone, knuckle TLL
knold n.masc/fem knoll ASD
knude n.masc/fem knot ASD
knuse vb to bruise ASD
knytte vb to knit ASD
Swedish: knalla vb to make a noise ASD
knapp n.masc knop, top ASD
kneka vb to be bent RPN
knif n.masc knife ASD
knusa vb to bruise ASD
knut n.masc knot ASD
knyta vb to knit, tie ASD
knöl n.masc knoll ASD
knåda vb to knead ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: knussyan vb to press down ASD
Lithuanian: gniusti vb to press, contract LD/W7
Greek: γναμπτός adj bent, curved RPN
γνάμπτω vb to bend RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at