Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō-   'to bear, produce, generate'

Semantic Field(s): to Bear (of Mother), to Do, Make


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gainethar is born GED
gein n.neut birth GED
Breton: genel vb to bear, give birth LRC
Welsh: gen(n)i vb to be born, give birth GED/RPN
Old English: cænnan, cynnan vb.wk.I to bear, beget, conceive, bring forth ASD
cennan, cennede, cenned vb.wk.I to bear, beget, conceive, bring forth LRC
cnōsl n.str.neut race GED
cynd n kind, species; origin RPN
cyne-rīce, cyne-rȳce n.neut kingdom ASD/GED
cy(ni)ng n.masc king ASD/GED
cynn n.neut kin(d), race, species; progeny GED/RPN
mon(n)-cynn, man(n)-cynn n.neut mankind LRC
Middle English: alkyn adj of all kinds MEV
benigne adj benign W7
degenerat adj degenerate W7
engendren vb to engender W7
engin n engine W7
gendre n gender W7
gendren vb to gender, engender W7
general adj general W7
genital adj genital W7
genitive adj genitive W7
gent adj gent W7
gentil adj gentle W7
gentile n gentile W7
gentrise, gentrie n gentry W7
germain adj having the same parents W7
innat adj innate W7
kin n kin(dred) W7
kinde n kind W7
kindred n kindred W7
king n king W7
maligne adj malign W7
malignen vb to malign W7
mankunde, mankyn(de) n mankind MEV
nacioun n nation W7
natal adj natal W7
natif adj native W7
nature n nature W7
pregnant adj pregnant W7
progenie n progeny W7
progenitor n progenitor W7
English: adnate adj grown fast to something different AHD/W7
agnate adj/n related/relative on father's side AHD/W7
allogeneic adj re: genetic dissimilarity AHD
archegonium n flask-shaped egg-producing sex organ AHD/W7
benign adj gracious, of gentle disposition AHD/W7
cognate adj related by blood AHD/W7
congener n member of same genus as another plant/animal AHD/W7
congenial adj kindred, having same tastes/nature/disposition AHD/W7
congenital adj existing at/dating from birth AHD/W7
connate adj inborn, innate AHD/W7
degenerate adj departed from proper quality AHD/W7
dysgenic adj yielding offspring inferior to parent TLL
enate n maternal female relative AHD
endogenous adj grown from within TLL
engender vb to beget, procreate AHD/W7
engine n wile, ingenuity; agent; device AHD/W7
epigone n imitative follower AHD/W7
erogenous adj sexually sensitive AHD/W7
eugenic adj yielding offspring superior to parent TLL
eugenics n ethics/genetics re: producing superior offspring TLL
-gen n.sfx producer AHD/W7
gender n sex AHD/W7
gender vb to engender AHD/W7
gene n part of germ plasm transmitting hereditary characters AHD/W7
general adj involving/applicable to whole AHD/W7
generate vb.trans to bring into existence AHD/W7
generation n offspring at same stage of descent AHD
generic adj general, re: whole group/class AHD/W7
generous adj highborn AHD/W7
genesis n birth/origin/coming into being AHD/W7
genial adj re: marriage/generation AHD/W7
-genic adj.sfx that generates AHD/W7
genital adj generative AHD/W7
genitive adj (grammatical case) re: relationship of possessor/source AHD/W7
genitor n one who creates/produces AHD
geniture n birth, nativity AHD/W7
genius n attendant spirit of person/place AHD/W7
genocide n destruction of racial/cultural/political group AHD/W7
genotype n type species, genetic constitution AHD/W7
-genous adj.sfx that generates AHD/W7
genre n sort, kind AHD/W7
gens n Roman clan embracing families of same male stock AHD/W7
gent adj pretty, graceful AHD/W7
genteel adj stylish, having aristocratic quality AHD/W7
gentile adj re: non-Jewish peoples AHD/W7
gentile n person of non-Jewish faith/stock AHD/W7
gentle adj re: family with high social status AHD/W7
gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gentleman n man of noble/gentle birth W7
gentry n.obs qualities appropriate to person of gentle birth AHD/W7
genuine adj true, actually having reputed/apparent character/qualities AHD/W7
genus n class/group/kind characterized by common attribute(s) AHD/W7
-geny n.sfx production, generation AHD/W7
germ n part of living substance able to develop into whole AHD/W7
german adj having same parents/grandparents on maternal/paternal side AHD/W7
germane adj closely akin AHD/W7
germinal adj re: earliest development stage AHD/W7
germinate vb to cause to sprout/develop AHD/W7
gingerly adj/adv careful/cautious; with care/delicacy AHD/W7
gonad n testis, ovary, primary sex gland AHD/W7
-gony n.sfx generation, reproduction, manner of birth AHD/W7
heterogeneous adj mixed, consisting of dissimilar parts AHD/W7
hormogonium n portion of cyanobacterium filament AHD
impregnate vb.trans to make pregnant AHD/W7
indigenous adj produced/growing/living naturally in region/environment AHD/W7
indigent adj needy, impoverished AHD/W7
ingenious adj showing/calling for intelligence AHD/W7
ingenuous adj noble, honorable AHD/W7
innate adj native, existing in/belonging to individual from birth AHD/W7
jaunty adj genteel AHD/W7
kin n clan, person(s) of common ancestry AHD/W7
kind adj loving, gentle, friendly, affectionate W7
kind n type, sort, nature AHD/W7
kindergarten n young children's class/school AHD/W7
kindred n relative(s), related individual(s) W7
king n male monarch of major territorial unit AHD/W7
kingsfoil n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
malign adj injurious, evil in effect/nature/influence AHD/W7
malign vb.trans to utter false/evil/misleading reports about AHD/W7
mankind n human race, all human beings W7
miscegenation n mixture of races AHD/W7
Morgul-king prop.n Nazgûl king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
naive adj ingenuous, artless, marked by unaffected simplicity AHD/W7
nascent adj re: being born/brought forth AHD/W7
natal adj native, re: birth AHD/W7
nation n nationality AHD/W7
native adj innate, inborn AHD/W7
nature n essence, inherent character/basic constitution AHD/W7
nee adj re: identifying woman by maiden name AHD/W7
neonatal adj re: newborn (human) infant W7
neonate n newborn infant AHD
Noel prop.n Christmas AHD
noel n Christmas carol W7
oncogenesis n tumor formation/development AHD
pregnant adj gravid, containing unborn young AHD/W7
primogenitor n ancestor, forefather AHD/W7
primogeniture n firstborn of children of same parents AHD/W7
progenitor n forefather, ancestor in direct line AHD/W7
progeny n children, offspring, descendants AHD/W7
puny adj weak, slight/inferior in size/power/importance AHD/W7
renaissance n transition between medieval/modern times in Europe AHD/W7
syngeneic adj genetically identical, closely related, immunologically compatible AHD
wunderkind n child prodigy AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kanna, kenna vb to beget, conceive ASD
kening, keneng, kini(n)g, koning n king ASD
kenn, kinn n kin, race, generation GED
Frisian: kening n king ASD
kinnen vb to beget, conceive ASD
Dutch: kind n.neut child ASD
koning n.masc king ASD
natuur n nature TLL
Old Saxon: cnōsal, knōsal n.str.neut race ASD/GED
cuni(n)g, kuning n.masc king ASD/GED
kennian vb to beget, conceive ASD
kind n.str.neut child LRC
kunni n race, generation GED
man-kunni n mankind ASD
Old High German: chnōt, chnuot n.str.fem race GED
chnuosal n.str.neut race GED
chuning, kuning n.str.masc king GED
chuni-rīche n kingdom GED
chunni n.str.neut kin, kind, race, generation GED/RPN
kannjan vb to beget, conceive ASD
kind, kint n.str.neut child ASD
knōsli, knuosli n.neut kin, race ASD
man-chunni n.neut mankind ASD
Middle High German: kint n.neut child ASD
künic, kün(e)c n.masc king ASD
German: Epigone n.masc follower, descendant W7
Gen n.neut gene, factor W7
Kind, Kinder n.neut child W7
Kindergarten n.masc kindergarten W7
Knösel n.masc little man ASD
König n.masc king ASD
Natur n.fem nature TLL
Wunderkind n.neut child prodigy W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kind n.fem child, offspring; race LRC
Old Icelandic: konungr n king GED
kyn n.fem kin(d), race, species GED/RPN
mann-kyn n.fem mankind ASD
Icelandic: kind n.fem kind, species ASD
kōngr, konungr n.masc king ASD
Danish: kjende vb to beget, conceive ASD
konge, konning n.masc king ASD
natur n nature TLL
Swedish: ko(nu)ng, kung n.masc king ASD
känna vb to beget, conceive ASD
natur n nature TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: himinakunds adj heavenly LRC
kindins n.str.masc governor LRC
*knoþs n.fem race, kindred GED
kuni n.neut kin(d), race, generation GED/RPN
niuklahs adj young, childish LRC
Old Latin: genunt they beget GED
Latin: adgnascor, adgnascī, adgnatus vb.dep to grow on W7
agnascor, agnascī, agnatus vb.dep to be born in addition to W7
benignus adj kind, benign W7
cognatus adj cognate, akin to W7
congener n.masc son-in-law W7
congenitus adj born with W7
degenero, degenerare, degeneravi, degeneratus vb to degenerate W7
generalis adj re: genre W7
generō, generāre, generāvī, generātus vb to beget, generate W7
generosus adj noble W7
genialis adj bridal, of wedding, joyful W7
genitalis adj of childbearing W7
genitivus, genetivus adj genitive, of birth W7
genitor n.masc begetter W7
genitura n.fem birth, an engendering W7
genius n.masc personal god W7
genō, genāre vb to beget, give birth RPN
gens, gentis n.fem clan, tribe, race, kindred group LRC
gentilis adj re: same clan/nation W7
genuinus adj native, genuine W7
genus, generis n.neut race, birth, genus GED/RPN
germanus adj germane, having same parents W7
germen, germinis n.neut bud, germ, seed, shoot W7
germinō, germināre, germināvī, germinātus vb to sprout W7
gīgnō, genere, genuī, genitus vb to beget, produce, generate, give birth GED/RPN
(g)nātus adj born GED
-gonia sfx having sides W7
indigena n.masc native (of the country) GED
ingenero, ingenerare vb to engender W7
ingeniosus adj talented W7
ingenium n.neut natural disposition, talent W7
ingens, ingentis adj great LRC
ingenuus adj free, natural, noble W7
innascor, innasci, innatus vb to be born in W7
malignus adj malicious, mean W7
nāscor, nāscī, nātus vb.dep to arise, be born/produced LRC
natalis adj relating to birth, birthday W7
nātiō, nātiōnis n.fem birth; race, nation LRC
nativus adj of the birth W7
natura n.fem nature W7
naturalis, naturalis, naturale adj natural LRC
praegnans, praegnantis adj pregnant, impregnated W7
praegnas adj pregnant, impregnated W7
progenies n.fem race, family, progeny LRC
progenitor n.masc parent, ancestor, progenitor W7
progigno, progignere, progenui, progenitus vb to beget, give birth to W7
renascor, renasci vb.dep to be born again W7
singulus, singula, singulum adj single, individual LRC
Late Latin: connascor, connasci, connatus vb.dep to be born together W7
impraegnō, impraegnāre, impraegnāvī, impraegnātus vb to make pregant W7
indigenus adj indigenous W7
malignor, malignāri vb.dep to act maliciously W7
primogenitor n.masc origin, first begetter W7
primogenitura n.fem primogeniture, first begotten children W7
Medieval Latin: heterogen(e)us adj heterogeneous W7
New Latin: archegonium n.neut originator W7
gonas, gonadis n.fem gonad W7
Old French: benigne adj benign AHD
engin n.masc engine, machine W7
gent n.fem gens; kind, clan, family W7
gentil adj noble, courageous W7
naïf adj inborn, natural W7
progénie n.fem ascendance, family, lineage W7
Middle French: benigne adj benign, good-natured W7
engendrer vb to engender W7
gendre n.masc son-in-law W7
gendrer vb to generate W7
general adj general, re: kind W7
genereus adj generous W7
genre n.masc genre, gender W7
germain adj kindred W7
ingenieux adj clever, ingenious W7
maligne adj.fem mean W7
maligner vb to act maliciously W7
natif adj native, re: birth W7
nation n.fem nation W7
nature n.fem nature W7
né vb.ptc born W7
progéniteur n.masc progenitor W7
puisné adj younger, born afterward W7
renaissance n.fem rebirth W7
renaistre vb to be born again W7
French: -gène adj.sfx act of bringing forth W7
générique adj generic W7
genre n.masc type, genre W7
gentil adj nice, genteel W7
germe n.masc germ, sprout W7
germinal adj germinal, re: germination W7
naître vb to be born W7
naïve, naïf adj.fem naive W7
né, née vb.ptc born W7
Noël prop.n.masc Noel LRC
noël n.masc noel LRC
renaissance n.fem 2nd birth, 2nd coming into fashion W7
Lithuanian: gentìs n kinsman LRC
žéntas n son-in-law LRC
Latvian: znuõts n.masc son-in-law, brother-in-law GED
Serbo-Croatian: zȅt n son-in-law, sister's husband LRC
Old Church Slavonic: zjatь n.masc bridegroom, son-in-law GED
zętъ n son-in-law, sister's husband LRC
Greek: archegonos n.masc originator W7
γενεή n.fem race, family, generation LRC
-geneia afx being born W7
γένεσις n.fem birth, source, origin, beginning LRC
-genēs afx birth W7
genikos adj genitive; re: birth W7
γεννάω vb to beget, give birth LRC
γένος n.neut birth, race, stock, kind GED/RPN
γίγνομαι vb.dep to happen, become; arise, be born GED/RPN
γνήσιος adj legitimate GED
γνωτός n.fem brother, kinsman, well-known person GED
-gonia afx birth W7
γόνος n.masc/fem child, offspring, descendant GED
epigignesthai vb to be born after W7
epigonos n.masc successor W7
heterogenēs adj heterogeneous W7
Armenian: cin n birth GED/RPN
cnanim vb to beget, be born GED/RPN
Avestan: zan- vb to bear, beget, be born RPN
zana- n people GED/RPN
zāta adj born GED
zayeite vb to be born LRC
zīzənti they bear GED
Sanskrit: jánati vb to beget, create GED/RPN
janáyati vb to bear, beget GED
jánas- n.masc race, descent, lineage GED/RPN
jātás adj born GED
jñatiṣ n relative GED
jñātás adj born GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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