Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō-   'to ken, know, recognize'

Semantic Field(s): to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad-gninim vb to know, recognize LRC
gnāth vb.ptc known GED
Old English: can vb.1/ know(s) W7
cēne, cȳne adj keen, bold, brave ASD/OED
cennan vb to ken, make known W7
cnāwan, cnēow, cnēowon, cnāwen vb.str to know, recognize, understand GED/RPN
cunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
cūþ adj known, familiar GED
cȳðan vb.wk to make known GED
oncnāwan, oncnēow, oncnēowon, oncnāwen vb.str to know, recognize, acknowledge AHD/ASD
uncūþ adj strange, uncouth, uncertain ASD/GED
Middle English: aknouen vb to know, recognize AHD
aquainten vb to acquaint W7
can vb.1/ can, know(s) W7
cognicioun n cognition W7
cointe adj quaint W7
conisaunce n cognizance W7
connen vb to know, learn, study W7
cunnen vb to know W7
cunning adj cunning W7
kene adj keen, brave W7
kennen vb to ken W7
knowen vb to know W7
knowlechen vb to acknowledge W7
knowlege n knowledge W7
noble adj noble W7
noten vb to note W7
notice n notice W7
phisonomie n physiognomy W7
prothonotarie n prothonotary W7
uncouth adj uncouth W7
English: abnormal adj deviating from norm/average AHD/W7
acknowledge vb.trans to own/admit knowledge of AHD/W7
acquaint vb.trans to cause to know personally AHD/W7
agnosia n inability to recognize AHD
annotate vb to make/furnish critical/explanatory notes/comment AHD/W7
can vb.mod to know, understand, be able AHD/W7
cognition n knowing, including awareness/judgment AHD/W7
cognizance n distinguishing mark/emblem AHD/W7
con vb.trans to peruse, study/examine closely AHD/W7
connoisseur n expert AHD/W7
connote vb.trans to suggest AHD/W7
couth adj refined, polished, sophisticated AHD/W7
couth n refinement, sophistication AHD
cunning adj exhibiting skill AHD/W7
diagnosis n act/art of identifying disease from signs/symptoms AHD/W7
enormous adj abnormal, inordinate AHD/W7
Gnome prop.n Deep (wise) Elf in early editions of Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
gnome n maxim, aphorism AHD/W7
gnomon n object serving as indicator by position/length of shadow AHD/W7
gnosis n knowledge of spiritual truth attainable through faith AHD/W7
Gnostic prop.n adherent of Gnosticism (belief that salvation comes through knowledge) LRC
ignorant adj not knowing, lacking knowledge/education AHD
ignore vb.trans to refuse to notice AHD/W7
incognito adv with concealed identity AHD/W7
keen adj wise, clever; sharp, cutting OED/W7
ken vb to see, know, perceive AHD/W7
kenning n metaphorical phrase used in poetry AHD/W7
know, knew, known vb.str to perceive directly AHD/W7
knowledge n cognizance AHD/W7
narrate vb.trans to relate, recite details AHD/W7
noble adj illustrious, possessing outstanding qualities AHD/W7
norm n model, authoritative standard AHD/W7
normal adj perpendicular AHD/W7
note n song, melody AHD/W7
note vb.trans to notice/observe with care AHD/W7
notice n announcement, warning/intimation of something AHD/W7
notion n inclusive general concept AHD/W7
notorious adj generally known/talked of AHD/W7
pathognomonic adj distinctively characteristic of particular disease AHD/W7
physiognomy n art of discovering character/temperament from outward appearance AHD/W7
prognosis n prospect of recovery anticipated from usual disease course/peculiarities of case AHD/W7
prothonotary n chief clerk of court of law AHD/W7
quaint adj skilled, expert AHD/W7
recognize vb.trans to perceive as something previously known AHD/W7
reconnaissance n preliminary survey AHD/W7
reconnoiter vb to make preliminary survey AHD/W7
uncouth adj rare, uncommon, unknown/unfamiliar AHD/W7
British English: recognise vb.trans to recognize LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kētha vb.wk to make known GED
kunna vb to ken, be able (to) GED
kuth, ku(n)d adj known ASD
Dutch: kan vb.1/ can TLL
kennen vb to ken ASD
koen adj keen, bold ASD
kon vb.pret.1/ knew, was able TLL
kond adj known ASD
kunnen vb to be able TLL
Old Saxon: cūðean vb.wk to make known GED
kūð adj known GED
kunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
Old Low German: kundan vb.wk to make known GED
Old High German: bichnāan vb to recognize W7
chnāan vb to ken, know GED
chund adj known GED
cnuodelen vb to indicate recognition GED
kan vb.1/ can, am/is able; ken(s), know(s) W7
knājan vb to ken, know ASD
kōn(i), kuon(i) adj keen, bold ASD
kund vb.ptc known W7
kunden, kund(j)an vb.wk to make known ASD/GED
kunnan vb to know, be able (to) GED
kunnēn vb to know how, be able RPN
un-kund adj strange, unknown ASD
Middle High German: kennen vb to ken ASD
küene, kuon adj keen, bold ASD
künden vb to make known ASD
kunnen vb to know, be able (to) ASD
kunt adj known ASD
German: kann vb.1/ can, am/is able; know(s) TLL
kennen vb to ken ASD
können vb to know how, be able (to) ASD
kühn adj keen, bold ASD
kund adj known ASD
künden vb to make known ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kenna vb to ken, recognize W7
kenning n metaphorical word/phrase (Norse poetry) W7
knā vb to know how, be able CGo
knār adj brave, capable CGo
kunna vb to know, be able (to) ASD
Old Icelandic: kunna vb to know, understand GED/RPN
kunnr, kūþr adj known GED
ū-kūðr adj unknown GED
Icelandic: kenna vb to ken, teach ASD
knā vb to know ASD
kunnr, kuðr adj known ASD
kynna vb to make known ASD
ū-kunnr adj unknown ASD
Danish: kan vb.1/ can, am/is able TLL
kunne vb to be able TLL
kynde vb to make known ASD
Swedish: kan vb.1/ can, am/is able TLL
kunna vb to make known ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *fra-kunþs adj despised GED
ga-kunnan vb to subject (someone) GED
kannjan vb to make known RPN
kunnan vb.ptpr.III to know GED
kunþi n.str.neut knowledge LRC
kunþjan vb to make known ASD
kunþs adj/n known; acquaintance LRC
swi-kunþs adj manifest GED
uf-kunnan vb to recognize, experience GED
un-kunþs adj strange, unknown GED
Crimean Gothic: knauen adj good CGo
Latin: annoto, annotare, annotavi, annotatus vb to observe, remark, annotate W7
cognatio, cognationis n.fem kindred, blood-relations LRC
cognitio, cognitionis n.fem acquaintance with W7
cognomentum, cognomenti n.neut surname LRC
cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus vb to know, become acquainted with W7
enormis adj huge W7
gnarus adj knowing W7
gnomon n.neut judgement, opinion, belief W7
(g)nosco, (g)noscere, (g)nōvi, (g)nōtum vb to know, recognize, become acquainted with LRC
ignarus adj ignorant, unknown W7
īgnōrō, īgnōrāre, īgnōrāvi, īgnōrātum vb to ignore, be unknown LRC
ignotus, ignota, ignotum adj unknown LRC
incognitus adj unknown W7
narro, narrare, narravi, narratus vb to narrate, tell a story W7
nobilis, nobilis, nobile adj famous, noble LRC
nobilitas, nobilitatis n.fem renown LRC
norma n.fem rule, carpenter's square W7
normalis adj according to the measure W7
nota n.fem mark, note W7
notarius n.masc notary, secretary W7
notio, notionis n.fem faculty of knowing, thing known W7
notitia, notitiae n.fem acquaintance, familiarity, carnal knowledge LRC
noto, notare vb to mark, note W7
recognosco, recognoscere vb to recognize W7
Late Latin: abnormis adj abnormal AHD
accognosco, accognoscere, accognovi, accognitus vb to know perfectly W7
gnosticus adj Gnostic W7
normalis adj normal W7
notorium n.neut information, indictment W7
notorius adj known W7
physiognomia, physiognomonia n.fem physiognomy W7
prognosis n.fem prognosis, evaluation W7
protonotarius n.masc chief clerk of court of law W7
Medieval Latin: accognito, accognitare vb to get acquainted W7
adcognito, adcognitare vb to acquaint AHD
anormalis adj abnormal W7
connoto, connotare vb to connote W7
notorius adj known, famous W7
New Latin: diagnosis n.fem diagnosis W7
Old French: acointier vb to acquaint W7
cointe adj.fem known, familiar, nice W7
connoisseor n.masc connoisseur W7
connoistre, conoistre vb to know W7
conoissance n.fem cognizance, knowledge W7
noble adj noble W7
noter vb to note W7
Middle French: notice n.fem acquaintance W7
phisonomie n.fem physiognomy W7
reconoissance n.fem recognition W7
reconoistre, reconoiss- vb to recognize W7
French: anormal adj abnormal W7
connaisseur n.masc connoisseur W7
ignorer vb to ignore, not know W7
reconnaissance n.fem gratitude, exploration W7
reconnaître vb to recognize W7
Italian: incognito adj/n.masc unknown (person) W7
Old Prussian: ersinnat vb to recognize GED
posinnat vb to recognize LRC
Lithuanian: pa-žìnti vb to recognize GED
pa-žintìs n acquaintance GED
žinóti, žìno, žinójo vb to know LRC
Latvian: zinât vb to know LRC
Old Church Slavonic: znamenьje n.neut sign LRC
znajǫ, znati vb to know GED/RPN
Russian: znatь vb to know LRC
Albanian: njoh vb to know GED/RPN
Homeric Greek: ἀγνοέω vb to fail to recognize LRC
ἀγνώς adj unknown LRC
ἄγνωστος adj unrecognized, unrecognizable LRC
Greek: agnōsia n ignorance AHD
gignōskein vb to come to know W7
γι(γ)νώσκω vb to know, learn LRC
gnōmē n.fem opinion, knowledge W7
gnōmonikos adj fit to judge W7
gnōmōn n.masc interpreter W7
γνῶσις n.fem knowledge LRC
gnōstikos adj of knowledge W7
γνωτός vb.past.pass.ptc known, perceived GED/RPN
διαγιγνώσκω vb to discern, distinguish LRC
diagnōsis n.fem diagnosis W7
ἔγνων vb.aor I understand RPN
pathognōmonikos adj distinctively characteristic of a particular disease W7
progignōskein vb to know before W7
prognōsis n.fem foreknowledge W7
physiognōmonia n.fem judgement of character by features W7
physiognōmōn adj judging character by features W7
Armenian: an-can adj unknown GED/RPN
caneay vb.aor knew, recognized GED/RPN
Old Persian: a-dānā he knew LRC
Avestan: ā-zaintiš n information GED
zan- vb to know RPN
zānāiti vb to know GED
Khowar: noik vb to appear, become visible RPN
Sanskrit: jānā́ti vb to know, recognize, have knowledge GED/RPN
jñātáḥ vb.ptc known, perceived, acquainted RPN
jñā-tí-ḥ n knowledge RPN
jñātram n capability of recognizing GED
jñāyante they know GED
Tocharian: knā- vb to know, recognize GED
Tocharian B: a-knātsa adj unknown RPN
Tocharian A: ā-knats adj unknown; ignorant RPN
kña- vb to be acquainted with RPN
knān- vb to know, recognize RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
III=class 3
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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