Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑enu-, fem., g̑enədh- : g̑onədh-   'chin, jaw(bone)'

Semantic Field(s): Chin, Jaw, Bone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gi(u)n n mouth GED/RPN
Breton: genaw n mouth RPN
gén n cheek RPN
génu n mouth RPN
Welsh: gen n chin, jaw, cheek GED/RPN
genau n mouth RPN
Old English: cin(n), cyn n.fem chin GED/RPN
Middle English: chin n chin W7
English: agnathan n jawless vertebrate AHD
chaetognath n small free-swimming marine worm AHD/W7
chin n lower portion of face, below lower lip, incl. lower jaw AHD/W7
genial adj re: chin AHD/W7
gnathal adj gnathic AHD
gnathic adj re: jaw AHD/W7
-gnathous adj.sfx re: having a jaw AHD/W7
Hanuman prop.n monkey-god (Hindu mythology) AHD
hanuman n small S Asian monkey AHD
opisthognathous adj having retreating jaws AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kin(n), ken n chin ASD/GED
Dutch: kin n.fem chin ASD
Old Saxon: kinni n.fem chin, jaw GED/RPN
Old High German: chinne n.str.neut chin, jaw GED
kinni n.neut chin, jaw ASD/RPN
Middle High German: kinn n.neut chin ASD
German: Kinn n.neut chin ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kinn n cheek RPN
Old Icelandic: kinn n.fem cheek GED
Icelandic: kinn n.fem chin ASD
Danish: kind n.masc/fem chin ASD
Swedish: kind n.fem chin ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *kinnus n.fem cheek GED/RPN
Latin: gena, genae n.fem chin, jaw, cheek GED/RPN
genuīnus n molar (tooth) GED
New Latin: -gnathus sfx of the jaw W7
Lithuanian: žándas n jaw GED/RPN
Latvian: zuôds n chin, jaw; sharp edge GED/RPN
Greek: γενειάς n.fem beard GED
γενειον n.neut chin, face where covered by beard GED
γένῠς n.fem chin, cheek, jaw GED/RPN
γναθμός n.masc jaw GED
γνάθος n.fem (lower) jaw GED/RPN
Armenian: cnaut n chin, jaw, cheek GED/RPN
Avestan: zānu- n chin, jaw RPN
Sanskrit: hánuḥ n jaw, chin, cheek RPN
Hindi: Hanumān prop.n Hanuman AHD
Tocharian A: śanweṃ n.fem.du (two) jaws GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
du=dual (number)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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