Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑ep(h)-, g̑ebh-   'jaw, jowl, mouth; to eat'

Semantic Field(s): Jaw, Mouth, to Eat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gop n beak, mouth RPN
Irish: gob n beak, mouth RPN
Old English: ce(a)f n.neut chaff ASD/W7
cēafl n jowl RPN
ceafor, ceafer n.masc chafer ASD/W7
Middle English: chaf n chaff W7
chavel n jowl W7
cheaffer n chafer W7
English: chafer n large beetle (esp. Scarabaeidae) AHD/W7
chaff n debris/coverings separated from seed by threshing AHD/W7
cockchafer n beetle (esp. Melolontha) destructive to plants AHD
jowl n jaw, cheek, mandible
West Germanic  
Dutch: kaf n.neut chaff ASD
kever n.masc chafer ASD
Old Saxon: kever n.masc chafer ASD
Old High German: cheva n husk W7
këvar(o) n.masc chafer ASD
Middle High German: kaf n.neut chaff ASD
këvere n.masc chafer ASD
kivel n jowl W7
New High German: Kebe n fish-gill RPN
German: Käfer n.masc chafer ASD
kaff n.neut chaff ASD
Kiefer n.masc jaw, jawbone RPN
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: kjaptr n jaw RPN
kjöptr n jaw RPN
Danish: kaebe n jaw TLL
Swedish: käft n jaw TLL
Lithuanian: žė́biu, žė́beti vb to munch, eat slowly RPN
Czech: žábra n fish-gill RPN
Avestan: zafarə, zafan- n mouth (of evil beings) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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