Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ger-   'to turn, wind, curl'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: grinne n bundle RPN
Irish: cairt n cart ASD
crom adj bent ASD
Gaelic: cairt, cartach n.fem cart ASD
creathail n.fem cradle ASD
Cornish: crom adj crooked ASD
Welsh: cart n cart ASD
crwm adj bent ASD
Old English: cradol, cradel n.masc cradle ASD/W7
cræft n.masc craft, strength, power ASD
cræt, crat n cart ASD/W7
crampiht adj crumpled, wrinkled RPN
cranc- pfx crank W7
cranc-stæf n.masc crank-staff (weaving implement) RPN
crēopan, crēap, crupon, cropen vb.str to creep W7
cribb n crib W7
crin(c)gan, crong, crungon, crungen vb.str.III to cringe, yield; die ASD
croc, crocc(a), crog(g) n.masc crock, pitcher, pot/jar ASD/W7
crop(p) n.masc crop ASD/W7
cruma n.masc crumb ASD/W7
crumb, crump adj bent, crooked RPN
crūse n pitcher W7
crycc n crutch W7
crymban, crympan vb to bend, curl RPN
crymbing n.fem bend, curvature, inclination ASD/RPN
crypel n cripple W7
cryppan vb to bend, to crook (finger) RPN
dweomercræft n.masc magic art, jugglery OED
Middle English: carpen vb to carp W7
cart n cart W7
cradel n cradle W7
craft n craft, strength W7
crampe n cramp W7
cranke n crank W7
creke, crike n creek W7
crengen vb to cringe W7
crepen vb to creep W7
crib n crib W7
cripel n cripple W7
crochet n crochet, crotchet W7
crock n crock (pot/jar) W7
croft n croft W7
crok n crock (decrepit) W7
croket n crocket W7
crompid n crumpet, lit. curled-up W7
crop n crop W7
croser n crosier(-bearer) W7
crouchen vb to crouch W7
croupe n croup W7
crucche n crutch W7
cruet n cruet W7
crul adj curly W7
crumb, crump adj crooked W7
crumme n crummy W7
crumped vb.ptc curled up W7
crumpen vb to curl up W7
crumplen vb.freq to crumple W7
cruper n crupper W7
cruse n cruse W7
crynkelen vb to crinkle W7
curlen vb to curl W7
encrochen vb to encroach W7
grape n grape W7
grapenel n grapnel W7
English: agraf(f)e n hook-and-loop fastener AHD/W7
carp vb.intrans to find fault/complain querulously AHD/W7
cart n 2-wheeled transport AHD/W7
cradle n bed/cot for baby, usu. on pivots/rockers AHD/W7
craft n art, skill, dexterity W7
cramp n spasmodic painful involuntary muscle contraction AHD/W7
cramp n metal device bent at ends to hold timbers/stone blocks together AHD/W7
crank n arm (at right angles to axle/shaft end) imparting/receiving circular motion AHD/W7
creche n day nursery AHD/W7
creek n small inlet/bay, narrower but extending farther inland than cove AHD/W7
creep, crept vb.wk.intrans to move with body prone/close to ground AHD/W7
crib n manger for feeding animals AHD/W7
Crickhollow prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
crimp vb.trans to cause to become bent/warped/wavy AHD/W7
cringe vb.intrans to contract/draw in one's muscles AHD/W7
cringle n eyelet/grommet/thimble/rope loop attached to sail AHD/W7
crinkle vb to form short bends/angles AHD/W7
cripple n lame/partly disabled person/animal AHD/W7
crochet n interlocking looped stitches formed with single thread/hooked needle AHD/W7
crock n thick earthenware pot/jar AHD/W7
crock n one that is decrepit/impaired/disabled/worn out AHD/W7
crocket n ornament (bent/curved foliage) on edge of gable/spire AHD/W7
croft n small enclosed field adjoining house AHD/W7
crook n implement having bent/hooked form AHD/W7
crop n swollen protuberance: bird's craw, sprout/top of herb AHD/OED
croquet n lawn game played with mallets/wooden balls/wickets AHD/W7
crosier n staff with pointed foot carried as symbol of office AHD/W7
crotch n pole with forked end AHD/W7
crotchet n brooch, small hook/hooked instrument AHD/W7
crouch vb to stoop with limbs close to body AHD/W7
croup n rump of quadruped AHD/W7
croupier n gambling casino employee who pays/collects bets AHD/W7
cruet n (glass) bottle for table condiments W7
cruller n small sweet cake in twisted strips fried in deep fat AHD/W7
crumb n small bread/pastry fragment AHD/W7
crummie n cow AHD/W7
crumpet n unsweetened cake batter cooked on griddle AHD/W7
crumple vb to rumple, bend/press/crush out of shape AHD/W7
crupper n leather loop under horse's tail buckled to saddle AHD/W7
cruse n small vessel (e.g. pot/jar) to hold liquid (e.g. oil/water) AHD/W7
crutch n device typically fitting under armpit used by disabled in walking AHD/W7
curl vb to form into coils/ringlets AHD/W7
dwimmer-crafty adj re: Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
encroach vb.intrans to take, by stealth/gradual steps, rights/possessions of another AHD/W7
gooseberry n spiny European shrub with edible berries AHD
grape n juicy smooth-skinned berry AHD/W7
grapnel n small anchor with 3-5 flukes/claws AHD/W7
grappa n dry colorless Italian brandy AHD/W7
grapple n iron-clawed instrument used to secure enemy vessel before boarding AHD/W7
grossularite n type of garnet AHD/W7
group n two/more figures forming unit AHD/W7
kreplach n small soup dumpling(s) AHD
krumkake n Norwegian waffle cookie, lit. bent cake AHD
krummhorn n double-reed woodwind, lit. bent horn AHD
Scots English: crumb adj bent, crooked W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: crumb adj bent, stooping ASD
kreft n craft, strength ASD
kriapa vb to creep ASD
krocha n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
Frisian: kreft n craft, strength ASD
krippen vb to creep ASD
kruwch n crock (pot/jar) ASD
Middle Dutch: crul adj curly W7
Dutch: kracht n.fem craft, strength ASD
krampe n hook W7
krat n.neut cart ASD
krom adj bent, stooping ASD
krop n.masc crop ASD
kruik n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
kruim n.fem crumb ASD
kruipen vb to creep ASD
krul adj curly W7
krulle n twisted cake W7
Old Saxon: criepan vb to creep ASD
crūka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
crumb adj bent, stooping ASD
kraft n.masc craft, strength ASD/IEW
Low German: krampe n hook W7
krimpen vb to shrivel W7
kring n ring W7
kringel n.dim cringle W7
Old High German: cratto n.masc cart ASD
kraft n.fem craft, strength ASD/IEW
krank adj weak KDW
krāpfo n hook W7
kratto n basket W7
krippa n crib, manger W7
kriuchan vb to creep ASD
krōg n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
krol adj curly W7
kropf n.masc crop ASD/W7
krucka n crutch W7
krumb adj bent, stooping ASD
Middle High German: kraft n.fem craft, strength ASD
kretze n.masc/fem cart ASD
kriuchen vb to creep ASD
kropf n.masc crop ASD
krūche n crock W7
krume n crumb W7
krump adj bent, stooping ASD
kruoc n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
German: Großularit n grossularite W7
Kraft n.fem craft, strength ASD
krank adj ill LRC
Krankenhaus n hospital TLL
krätze, kretze n.masc/fem cart ASD
kriechen vb to creep ASD
kropf n.masc crop ASD
Krug n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
Krume n.fem crumb ASD
krumm adj bent, stooping ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kartr n cart W7
kriki n bend; creek W7
krjúpa vb to creep, crouch LRC
krōkr n hook, barb W7
Old Icelandic: krá n nook, corner RPN
kring adj round RPN
kringja vb to encircle, to surround RPN
kringr n circle, ring RPN
kryppil n cripple RPN
krœkja vb to hook RPN
Icelandic: karpa vb to dispute IEO/W7
kartr n.masc cart ASD
kraftr, kraptr n.masc craft, strength ASD
krjupa vb to creep ASD
kroppr n.masc crop ASD
krukka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
Norwegian: krokje n crock W7
Danish: kraft n.masc/fem craft, strength ASD
kro n inn TLL
krop n.masc/fem crop ASD
krukke n.masc/fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
krum adj bent, stooping ASD
krumme n.masc/fem crumb ASD
krybe vb to creep ASD
omkring prep around TLL
Swedish: kraft n.masc craft, strength ASD
kropp n.masc crop ASD
kruka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
krum adj bent, stooping ASD
krumma n.fem crumb ASD
krypa vb to creep ASD
omkring prep around TLL
Latin: grūmus n little heap, hillock (of earth) RPN
New Latin: Grossularia n.fem shrub genus incl. gooseberries W7
Old French: crape n.fem skin disease W7
croc(he) n.masc fang, hook W7
croupe n.fem croup W7
crue n crock (pot/jar) W7
crupiere n.fem lit. one (who rides) on (horse) croup W7
encrochier vb to encroach W7
grosele n gooseberry AHD
Old North French: croquet n.masc.dim crocket W7
Anglo-French: cruet n.dim cruet W7
Middle French: crochet n.masc.dim hook, crochet W7
crossier n crosier W7
encrochier vb to encroach W7
grape n.fem hook W7
grapin n.masc.dim grapnel, hook W7
grapinel n.masc.dim grapnel, hook W7
grappelle n.fem hook W7
French: agrafe n agrafe W7
agrafer vb to hook onto AHD
crèche n.fem creche, nursery W7
crochet n.masc.dim hook, crochet W7
croupe n.fem croup W7
croupier n.masc croupier W7
groupe n.masc group W7
Italian: grappa n grappa W7
Lithuanian: gárbana, garbanà n curl, lock, ringlet RPN
grandìs n ring, link (of a fence) RPN
Greek: griphos n.masc reed basket W7
γρῡπός n hook-nosed RPN
grypos adj curved W7
Sanskrit: grathnā́mi vb to fasten, tie/string together RPN
grantha, grathna-ḥ, granthí-ḥ n knot, tie, bunch, tuft W7
grantháyati vb to fasten, tie/string togeth RPN
Prakrit: gaṁṭhi- n knot, joint, bundle RPN
gaṁṭhilla- adj knotted RPN
gaṁṭhaï, gaṁthaï vb to tie, knot RPN
Assamese: gā̃ṭhi- n knot, joint, protuberance RPN
gā̃thiba- vb to string together RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEO=Arngrimur Sigurdsson: Íslenzk-Ensk Orðabók (1970)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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