Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ger-   '(onomatopoeic: to crow, shriek, etc.)'

Semantic Field(s): Sound (n), Various Cries


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: garan n.masc crane ASD
Gaelic: crac vb to crack ASD
garan n.masc crane ASD
Cornish: garan n.fem crane ASD
Welsh: garan n.fem crane ASD/RPN
Gaulish: garanos cranes RPN
Old English: ceorcian vb to complain RPN
ce(o)rian, ceorigan, ciorian vb to murmur, grumble ASD/RPN
ceorran vb to creak RPN
cracian vb to crack W7
cran n crane RPN
cranoc, cornuc n crane RPN
crāwan vb to crow W7
crāwe n.fem crow ASD/W7
Middle English: crake n crake W7
crakken vb to crack W7
cran n crane W7
crowe n crow W7
crowen vb to crow W7
croynen vb to croon W7
cur n cur W7
curdogge n cur dog W7
curren vb to growl W7
krakenelle n cracknel W7
pedegru n pedigree W7
English: crack vb to make sharp explosive sound (as if) in breaking AHD/W7
cracknel n hard brittle biscuit AHD/W7
crake n rail (kind of bird) AHD/W7
cranberry n bright red acid berry AHD/W7
crane n tall wading bird AHD/W7
croon vb to boom, bellow AHD/W7
crow, crew vb.str/wk to make loud shrill sound like rooster W7
crow n glossy black oscine bird AHD/W7
cur n mongrel/inferior dog AHD/W7
geranium n plant having flowers without spurs AHD/W7
grackle n Old World starling AHD/W7
pedigree n register recording ancestral line AHD/W7
Stormcrow prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Frisian: krie n crow ASD
Middle Dutch: cronen vb to croon W7
Dutch: korren vb to coo (as pigeons) ASD
kraai n.fem crow ASD
kraaijen vb to crow ASD
kraan n.fem crane ASD
kraken vb to crack ASD
Old Saxon: krāia n.fem crow ASD
krano n crane RPN
Low German: kraan n crane W7
kraanbere n cranberry W7
Old High German: kerren vb to murmur, chatter ASD
krachjan, krachōn vb to crack ASD
krāhan, krājan vb to crow ASD
krano n crane W7
kranuh n.masc crane ASD/RPN
krā(w)a n.fem crow ASD/W7
queran vb to creak, murmur ASD
Middle High German: kërren, kirren vb to murmur, complain ASD
krā n.fem crow ASD
krachen vb to crack ASD
kræjen vb to crow ASD
kranech n.masc crane ASD
German: kerren vb to murmur, make a harsh sound ASD
krachen vb to crack ASD
Krähe n.fem crow ASD
krähen vb to crow ASD
Kranich n.masc crane ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: krāka n crow W7
krākr n raven W7
trana n crane KNW
Icelandic: trana n.fem crane ASD
trani n.masc crane ASD
Danish: krage n crow TLL
trane n.masc/fem crane ASD
Swedish: kran n water tap; crane: machine SAO/TLL
kråka n crow TLL
trana n.fem crane: bird ASD
Latin: geranium n.neut geranium W7
graculus n.masc grackle, jackdaw W7
grūs n.masc/fem crane RPN
New Latin: geranium n.neut geranium W7
Old Prussian: gerwe n crane RPN
Lithuanian: garnỹs n heron RPN
gérvė n crane RPN
Old Church Slavonic: žeravь n crane RPN
Greek: geranion n.neut geranium W7
γέρανος n.masc/fem crane RPN
Armenian: kṙunk n crane RPN
Sanskrit: járate vb to call to; crackle (of fire) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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