Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑er-, g̑erə-, g̑rē-   'to rub; rotten; to age, ripen; grain'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub, to Spoil, Grain (generic, British Corn)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ceorl n ceorl, carl, fellow W7
corn n.neut corn LRC
cyrin, ceren n.fem churn W7/ASD
cyrn(e)l n kernel W7/ASD
Middle English: bred-corn n lit. bread-grain MEV
carl n carl W7
churl n churl W7
chyrne n churn W7
corn, curn n corn W7
garner n garner W7
garnett n garnet (tackle) W7
grain n grain W7
grange n grange W7
grenat n garnet (semiprecious stone) W7
kernel n kernel W7
poumgarnet n pomegranate W7
English: ageratum n tropical American composite herb AHD/W7
Carl prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
carl n common man (of the people) AHD/W7
carling n part of ship deck framing AHD/W7
Ceorl prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ceorl n free man of lowest rank W7
churl n ceorl AHD/W7
churn n vessel for making butter IEW
corn n grain, small hard seed AHD/W7
einkorn n early cultivated single-grain wheat AHD
filigree n ornamental work of fine gold/silver/copper wire AHD/W7
garner n granary AHD/W7
garnet n semiprecious stone: more/less transparent (red) silicate mineral AHD/W7
garnet n tackle for lifting cargo on ship AHD/W7
geriatric adj re: age/aging AHD/W7
geront(o)- pfx old age AHD/W7
grain n small hard seed(s) AHD/W7
gram n leguminous plant grown esp. for seed AHD/W7
granadilla n passionflower fruit AHD
granary n place to store threshed grain AHD/W7
grange n barn, granary AHD/W7
grani- pfx grain, seeds AHD/W7
granita n chipped ice with flavorings AHD
granite n very hard, visibly crystalline igneous rock AHD/W7
granule n small particle AHD/W7
grenade n container fitted with priming/bursting charges AHD/W7
grenadine n plain/figured open-weave fabric AHD/W7
kernel n fruit seed AHD/W7
pomegranate n thick-skinned reddish berry with many seeds in crimson pulp AHD/W7
British English: corn n maize; (organic) granule GED
Scots English: curn n corn W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: korn n corn ASD
tzerle, tzirle n man ASD
Frisian: tzsierl n man ASD
Dutch: karel n.masc carl ASD
kern n.fem kernel ASD
kōren n.neut corn ASD
Old Saxon: korn(i), kurni n.neut corn ASD
Old High German: char(a)l n.masc carl ASD
kerno n.masc kernel ASD
korn n corn GED
Middle High German: kerl n.masc carl ASD
kërn(e) n.masc kernel ASD
korn n.neut corn ASD
German: Einkorn n.neut einkorn, lit. single-grain LRC
Kerl n.masc carl ASD
Kern n.masc kernel ASD
Korn n.neut corn, cereal ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kerling n carling, lit. old woman W7
korn n corn W7
Old Icelandic: karl n carl, (old) man RPN
Icelandic: karl n.masc carl ASD
kjarni n.masc kernel ASD
korn n.neut corn ASD
Danish: kjerne n.masc/fem kernel ASD
korn n.neut corn ASD
Old Swedish: krootas vb to break to pieces GED
Swedish: korn n.neut corn ASD
kärna n.fem kernel ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *ga-kroton vb.wk.II to break to pieces GED
kaurn(o) n.neut corn GED/ASD
Crimean Gothic: *korn, kor n corn CGo
Latin: glārea n.fem sand, gravel GED
granarium n.neut granary W7
granata n.fem pomegranate W7
granatus vb.ptc seedy W7
grānum n.neut grain, seed, kernel GED
Late Latin: granulum n.neut.dim small grain W7
Medieval Latin: granica n.fem grange W7
New Latin: Ageratum n.masc genus of herbs W7
Portuguese: grão n.masc grain W7
Old French: grenier n.masc granary W7
Old North French: calingue n.fem old woman W7
Middle French: grain n.masc cereal grain W7
graine n.fem grain, seed W7
grange n.fem barn W7
grenade n.fem grenade; pomegranate W7
grenat adj/n.masc (re:) precious stone, red like pomegranate W7
French: carlingue n.fem keelson W7
filigrane n.masc filigree W7
grenade n.fem grenade; pomegranate W7
grenadine n.fem grenadine W7
Italian: filigrana n.fem filigree, watermark W7
granire vb to granulate W7
granito adj seeded, full of grain W7/CID
grano n.masc grain W7
Lithuanian: žìrnis n pea GED
Old Church Slavonic: zrělъ adj ripe RPN
zrěti vb to ripen, mature GED/RPN
Greek: agēratos adj ageless W7
γεραιός adj old RPN
γέρων adj/n.masc old; old man GED/RPN
γῆρας n.neut old age RPN
γηράω vb to grow old GED
Armenian: cer adj old RPN
Avestan: zar- vb to grow old, waste away RPN
Sanskrit: grā́vā n grindstone GED
jára-ḥ adj becoming old, wearing out RPN
jaraṇá-ḥ adj old, decayed RPN
járat- adj old; worn; dry (herbs) RPN
járati vb to grow old, wear out RPN
járant- adj old, sickly GED
jarā́ n old age RPN
jīrṇá-ḥ, jūrṇá-ḥ adj old, worn out, withered RPN
jīryati vb to become feeble GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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