Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g(e)u-lo-   'glowing coal'

Semantic Field(s): Fire (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: gual n.masc coal W7
Old English: cōl n.neut coal ASD/KEW
Middle English: col(e) n coal ASD/W7
colier n collier W7
English: cholla n spiny shrubby treelike cactus AHD
coal n ember, charred wood, glowing carbon AHD/W7
collie n large (breed of) dog (bred) for sheep herding AHD/W7
collier n one who produces charcoal AHD/W7
colly vb to blacken with soot AHD/W7
Scots English: coill, coyll n coal ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kole n coal ASD
Frisian: koal n coal ASD
Dutch: kool n coal TLL
Old High German: kol n.neut coal KDW
kolo n.masc coal ASD
Middle High German: kol n.masc coal ASD
German: Kohle n.fem coal LRC
Köhler n.masc collier LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kol n coal W7
Icelandic: kol n.neut coal ASD
Danish: kul n.neut coal ASD/TLL
Swedish: kol n.neut coal ASD/TLL
Old French: cholle n head, round lump AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at