Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑eus-   'to taste, degust, enjoy'

Semantic Field(s): to Taste (subj), to Taste (obj), to Please


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: asagussi vb to wish LRC
Fergus prop.n [personal name re:] excellence GED
guss n excellence GED
Oengus prop.n [personal name re:] excellence GED
togu vb to select GED
Old English: cēosan vb.str to choose, test GED
cost n.masc object of choice, excellence GED
cyre n.masc selection GED
ge-kor n.str decision GED
un-ge-coren vb.past.ptc vile GED
wælcyrige n witch W7
Middle English: chois n choice W7
chosen vb to choose W7
guste n gust W7
English: choice n selection, act of choosing AHD/W7
choose, chose, chosen vb.str to select after consideration AHD/W7
degust vb.trans to taste, savor AHD/W7
disgust vb to be offensive, provoke loathing/aversion/repugnance AHD/W7
gust n sensation of taste AHD/W7
gustation n act/sensation of tasting AHD/W7
gusto n liking, taste AHD/W7
ragout n well-seasoned meat/vegetables cooked in thick sauce AHD/W7
Valkyrie prop.n maiden of Odin: chooses hero to be slain, guides him to Valhalla (Norse mythology) LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: kiāsa, tziesa vb.str to choose, test ASD/GED
Frisian: kiezjen, tziezjen vb to choose ASD
Dutch: keur n.fem choice ASD
keuren vb to test GED
kiezen vb to choose ASD
Old Saxon: cust n.masc object of choice, excellence GED
kiosan, keosan vb.str to choose, taste, test ASD/GED
korōn vb.wk to test, taste GED
kostōn vb to attempt GED
Low German: koren vb to taste GED
Old High German: cost n.masc estimate, selection GED
gi-corōn vb.wk to test, taste GED
kiosan, kiusan vb.str to choose, taste, test ASD/GED
korōn vb.wk to test, taste GED
kostōn vb.wk to test GED
kurī, churi n.fem selection ASD/GED
Middle High German: kiusen, kiesen vb to choose ASD
kūr(e) n.fem election, examination ASD
German: kiesen vb to choose ASD
kosten vb to degust LRC
Kur, Kür, Chur n.fem choice, election ASD
Walküre prop.n Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kostr n.masc choice, alternative; chance, opportunity LRC
Valkyrie prop.n Valkyrie: minor divinity (Norse mythology) W7
Old Icelandic: kjōsa vb.str to choose, test GED
kor n.str decision GED
kosta vb to try GED
kostr n.masc selection GED
Icelandic: keyr, kjörr n.neut choice ASD
kjōsa vb to choose ASD
ū-kjörligr adj wretched ASD
val-kyrja n.fem Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain ASD
Danish: kaar n.neut choice ASD
keise vb to choose ASD
Swedish: kor n choice ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: kausjan vb.wk.I to experience GED
*kiusan vb.str.II to choose, test GED
un-gakusans adj unchosen, rejected ASD
us-kiusan vb.str.II to reject, not choose GED
Latin: dēgustō, dēgustāre vb to taste, degust W7
gustatio, gustationis n.fem sense of taste W7
gustō, gustāre, gustāvī, gustātus vb to taste W7
gustus n.masc taste, tasting GED
Spanish: gusto n.masc taste W7
Old French: chois n choice W7
Middle French: desgouster vb to disgust, dislike taste of W7
goust n.masc taste W7
French: ragoût n.masc stew W7
ragoûter vb to revive taste, stir appetite W7
Albanian: desha I loved GED
Homeric Greek: γεύομαι vb to taste LRC
Old Persian: dauš vb to taste LRC
dauštar- n friend GED
Avestan: zaoš- vb to taste, be pleased GED
Sanskrit: juṣáte vb to enjoy GED
júṣṭiṣ n favor GED
jṓṣati vb to taste LRC
joṣṭár- adj loving GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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