Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gleubh-   'to cut, cleave, pare, slice'

Semantic Field(s): to Cut, to Divide


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: clēofan, clēaf, clufon, clofen vb.str to cleave W7
clufu n clove W7
geclyft n cleft W7
Middle English: cleft, clift n cleft W7
cleven vb to cleave W7
cliver adj clever W7
clove n clove W7
English: anaglyph n chased/embossed/sculptured ornament in low relief AHD/W7
cleave, clove, cleft, cloven, cleft vb.str/wk to split/divide via cutting blow AHD/W7
cleft adj (partially) split/divided AHD/W7
cleft n fissure, space/opening made by splitting AHD/W7
clever adj showing physical skill/dexterity/resourcefulness AHD/W7
clevi n clevis AHD/W7
clevis n metal shackle with end drilled to receive pin/bolt AHD/W7
clove n small section of separable bulb (e.g. garlic) AHD/W7
glume n chaffy bract AHD/W7
glyph n ornamental vertical groove in Doric frieze AHD/W7
glyptic n art/process of carving/engraving AHD/W7
hieroglyphic adj re: system of writing in pictorial characters AHD/W7
kloof n deep ravine AHD
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: clove n cleft AHD
Dutch: klieven, klooven vb to cleave ASD
kloof n kloof, cleft AHD
Afrikaans: kloof n kloof AHD
Old Saxon: klioban vb to cleave ASD
Old High German: kliuban vb to cleave ASD
Middle High German: klieben, kliuben vb to cleave ASD
German: klieben vb to cleave ASD
Kluft n.fem cleft LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: kljūfa vb to cleave W7
Icelandic: kljūfa vb to cleave ASD
Danish: klöve vb to cleave ASD
Swedish: klyfva vb to cleave ASD
Latin: glubo, glubere vb to peel W7
gluma n.fem hull, husk W7
Late Latin: anaglyphus adj embossed W7
Middle French: hiéroglyphique adj of the hieroglyphs W7
French: glyptique n.fem glyptic, study of engravures on fine stones R1/W7
Greek: anaglyphein vb to emboss W7
anaglyphos adj embossed W7
glyptikē n.fem glyptic W7
glyphein vb to carve W7
glyphē n.fem carved work W7
hieroglyphikos adj re: hieroglyphs, sacred script W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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