Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: glōgh- : gləgh-   'barb, spike'

Semantic Field(s): Sharp, Branch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: glose n gloss W7
English: bugloss n rough-haired herb in genus Anchusa AHD/W7
diglossia n language division: prestigious vs. colloquial AHD
glochidium n barbed hair/spine (e.g. on cactus) AHD/W7
gloss n brief explanation of obscure/difficult word/expression AHD/W7
glossa n tongue/lingual structure in insect AHD/W7
glossary n textual gloss collection AHD/W7
glossolalia n fabricated nonmeaningful speech AHD
glottis n elongated space between vocal folds AHD/W7
isogloss n boundary between places/regions differing in some linguistic feature AHD/W7
polyglot adj re: speaking several languages AHD/W7
polyglot n one who speaks several languages AHD/W7
proglottid n bisexual segment of tapeworm AHD
Latin: glossa n.fem unusual word requiring explanation W7
New Latin: glochidium n.neut mussel larva W7
glossa n.fem glossa W7
Old French: glose n.fem explanation of difficult word W7
Middle French: buglosse n.fem bugloss W7
Attic: γλῶττα n.fem tongue; language LRC
Greek: γλῶσσα n.fem tongue; language LRC
glōttis n.fem glottis W7
glōchis n.fem projecting point W7
polyglōttos adj polyglot W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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