Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghaido-, or g̑haido-   'goat, kid'

Semantic Field(s): Goat

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Welsh: gid, giten n.fem (young) goat ASD
English  
Old English: gāt n.fem goat W7/ASD
Middle English: gote n goat W7
English: goat n hollow-horned ruminant mammal AHD/W7
Goatleaf prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
goatleaf n.arch honeysuckle (in The Lay of the Honeysuckle) LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: geit n.fem goat ASD
Old High German: geiz n.fem goat W7/ASD
Middle High German: geiz n.fem goat ASD
German: Geiss n.fem (nanny) goat LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: geit n.fem goat ASD
Danish: ged n.masc/fem goat ASD
Swedish: get n.fem goat ASD
geting n wasp TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: gaits n.fem goat ASD
Italic  
Sabine: faedus n goat LRC
Latin: haedus n.masc baby goat W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
arch=archaic
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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