Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑haiso-, or g̑həiso- : g̑hēiso-   'dart; staff, stick'

Semantic Field(s): Arrow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: frum-gār n.masc leader, chieftain, patriarch, lit. first-spear LRC
gār n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
gāra n gore, triangular piece W7
gār-Dene spear-Danes LRC
gārlēac n.neut garlic ASD/W7
gār-wudu n.masc javelin, lit. spear-wood ASD
Middle English: garfysshe n garfish W7
garlek n garlic W7
gore n gore W7
English: garfish n gar AHD/W7
garlic n European bulbous herb AHD/W7
Gárulf prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gore n small triangular piece AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: gēr n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
Low German: gere n wedge ASD
Old High German: gēr n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
Middle High German: gēr n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
German: Ger n.masc dart, spear, javelin ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: geirr n.masc spear; point of anvil LRC
Icelandic: geirlaukr n garlic ASD
geirr n.masc spear ASD
Greek: chaion n.neut shepherd's staff W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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