Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑han-s-   'goose'

Semantic Field(s): Goose


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: géiss n swan RPN
Old English: gan(d)ra n.masc gander ASD/W7
ganot, ganet n.masc gannet, goose ASD
gōs n.fem goose ASD/RPN
gōs-hafoc n.masc goshawk ASD/W7
Middle English: gander n gander W7
ganet n gannet W7
gos n goose W7
goshawke n goshawk W7
gosling n gosling W7
English: anserine adj re: goose AHD/W7
chenopod n plant in goosefoot family AHD/W7
gander n adult male goose AHD/W7
gannet n large fish-eating seabird AHD/W7
gonzo adj bizarre, subjective, exaggerated, unconventional AHD
goose, geese n.str waterfowl intermediate in size between ducks/swans AHD/W7
goshawk n long-tailed short-winged hawk AHD/W7
gosling n young goose AHD/W7
gunsel gunman AHD/W7
merganser n fish-eating duck AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: gans n goose TLL
gent n.masc gander ASD
Low German: gante n gannet ASD
Old High German: gan(a)zo n.masc gander ASD
gāns n goose RPN
gans-hapich n goshawk ASD
Middle High German: ganze(r) n.masc gander ASD
German: Gans n.fem goose LRC
Gänserich n.masc gander ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: gás n goose RPN
Icelandic: gassi n.masc gander ASD
gās n goose ASD
gāshaukr n goshawk ASD
Danish: gaas n goose RPN
Swedish: gås n goose RPN
Latin: ānser n.masc goose RPN
anserinus adj of geese W7
New Latin: merganser n.masc a waterfowl W7
Old Prussian: sansy n goose LRC
Lithuanian: žąsìs n goose RPN
Latvian: zùoss n goose LRC
Polish: gęś n goose RPN
Russian: gus' n goose RPN
Doric: χᾱ́ν n goose RPN
Greek: χήν n goose RPN
Sanskrit: haṁsá-ḥ n goose, gander; swan RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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