Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: gheis-, and g̑heiz-d-   'shocked, aghast, confused'

Semantic Field(s): Surprise, Wonder, Astonishment


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gǣstan vb.wk to gast, afflict GED
gāst, gǣst n.str.masc ghost, angel ASD/GED
Middle English: agast adj aghast W7
agasten vb to gast W7
gast, ghest, gost n ghost W7
gasten vb to frighten W7
English: aghast adj shocked, struck with horror/terror/amazement AHD/W7
barghest n ghost/goblin portending misfortune AHD/W7
gast vb.trans to scare, frighten AHD/W7
ghastly adj frightful GED
ghost n soul, spirit, seat of life AHD/W7
poltergeist n mischievous ghost responsible for unexplained noises AHD/W7
Radagast prop.n wizard in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
snollygoster n shrewd unprincipled person/politician AHD/W7
Scots English: gest n ghost ASD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: gast, iest n.masc ghost ASD
Frisian: gæst n ghost ASD
Dutch: geest n.masc ghost ASD
Old Saxon: gēst, gāst, geist n.str.masc ghost ASD/GED
Low German: geest n.masc ghost ASD
Old High German: geist n.str.masc ghost GED
Middle High German: geist n.masc ghost ASD
German: Geist n.masc ghost ASD/W7
Poltergeist n poltergeist W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: geiska-fullr adj lit. fearful GED
Icelandic: geiski n fright GED
Danish: geist n.masc/fem ghost ASD
Swedish: gast n.masc ghost, evil spirit ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: gaisjan vb.wk.I to be frightened ASD
gasts n ghost LRC
*us-gaisjan vb.wk.I to frighten GED
*us-gaisnan vb.wk.IV to be amazed, astonished GED
Avestan: zaeša- adj horrible GED
zōišnu- adj frightened, trembling GED
Sanskrit: hinásti vb to injure, destroy GED
hīḍ- vb to be angry GED
héḍas- n anger (of gods) GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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