Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghel-   'to yell, call, cry'

Semantic Field(s): to Call, Summon, to Cry, Weep


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: begiellan, begeall, begullon, begollen vb.str.III to yell, scream, screech LRC
galan vb.str to sing ASD/W7
g(e)aldor n.neut spell, charm, magic, enchantment ASD/IEW
gi(e)llan, gellan, gyllan vb.str to yell ASD/W7
gi(e)lpan, gylpan vb.str to boast, exult ASD/W7
nihte-gale n.fem nightingale ASD/W7
Middle English: celidoine n celandine W7
nightingale n nightingale W7
yellen vb to yell W7
yelpen vb to boast, cry out W7
English: celandine n yellow-flowered biennial herb AHD/W7
cichlid n tropical freshwater spiny-finned fish AHD/W7
Galdor prop.n Grey Haven elf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
nightingale n Old World thrush noted for nocturnal song AHD/W7
yell vb to utter loud cry/scream/shout AHD/W7
yelp vb to utter quick sharp shrill cry AHD/W7
Scots English: gale vb to cry ASD
West Germanic  
Frisian: galljen vb to yell, sing ASD
Dutch: galmen vb to sound ASD
golf n wave, surge, billow IEW
Old Saxon: galan vb to sing, call ASD
Old Low German: nahti-gala n nightingale ASD
Middle Low German: gelve n wave, surge, billow IEW
Low German: gillen vb to shriek ASD
Old High German: calm, galm vb to yell, sing ASD
galan vb to sing ASD
gellan vb to yell W7
gelph n outcry W7
nahti-gala n nightingale ASD
German: Gal(l) n sound ASD
gällen, gellen vb to sound ASD
North Germanic  
Icelandic: gala vb to sing, crow ASD
galdr, galðr n.masc song, charm, spell, witchcraft, sorcery ASD
gella vb to yell, sing ASD
Danish: gale vb to crow ASD
Swedish: gala vb to crow ASD
Latin: chelidonius adj re: swallow W7
Middle French: celidoine n.masc celandine W7
Lithuanian: gulbinti vb to praise LD/W7
Greek: kichlē n.fem thrush, kind of wrasse W7
chelidonios adj re: swallow W7
chelidōn, cheilidonos n.fem swallow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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