Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. g̑her-, g̑hor-nā   'bowels'

Semantic Field(s): Belly, Stomach


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ge(a)rn n.neut yarn ASD/RPN
Middle English: accord n chord W7
cord n cord W7
yarn n yarn W7
English: chord n tones blending harmoniously AHD/W7
chorion n vascular outer embryonic vertebrate membrane AHD/W7
cord n several strands of string woven/twisted together AHD/W7
cordon n ornamental cord used on costumes AHD/W7
harpsichord n keyboard instrument that produces sound by plucking wire strings AHD/W7
haruspex n priest performing divination via entrails inspection AHD
hernia n rupture, protrusion of organ through body wall AHD
hexachord n 6-tone diatonic series with semitone between 3rd and 4th AHD/W7
tetrachord n 4-tone diatonic series with perfect fourth between first and last AHD/W7
yarn n continuous fiber/filament used in weaving/knitting AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: garen n.neut yarn, thread ASD
Old High German: garn n.neut yarn ASD/W7
Middle High German: garn n.neut yarn ASD
German: Garn n.neut yarn ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: garn n yarn RPN
görn n gut RPN
Icelandic: garn n.neut yarn ASD
Danish: garn n.neut yarn ASD
Swedish: garn n.neut yarn ASD
Latin: chorda n.fem string W7
harūspex n.masc haruspex, soothsayer who uses entrails RPN
hernia n.fem rupture W7
hīra n empty gut RPN
New Latin: chorion n.neut embryonic membrane W7
Old French: corde n.fem rope, string W7
French: corde n.fem rope W7
cordon n.masc small cord, string W7
Italian: arpicordo n.masc harpsichord W7
corda n.fem string W7
Lithuanian: žarnà n gut, intestine RPN
Greek: χορδή n.fem gut-string RPN
chordos adj of strings W7
Sanskrit: híra-ḥ n band, strip, fillet RPN
hirā́ n vein, artery RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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