Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. g̑her-   'to grab, grip, seize'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: car n turn CDC
cor n turn, music, circular motion CDC
Gaelic: car, cuir n turn, movement, bar of music CDC
Welsh: cōr n choir, circle CDC
Middle English: corteis adj courteous W7
corteisie n courtesy W7
court n court W7
courteour n courtier AHD
curtilage n curtilage W7
quer n choir W7
querister n chorister W7
English: carol n old round dance with song AHD/W7
choir n organized group of singers AHD/W7
choral adj re: choir/chorus AHD/W7
chorale n hymn/psalm sung in church AHD/W7
choric adj re: chorus AHD
chorister n choir singer AHD/W7
chorus n group of singers/dancers in Greek drama AHD/W7
cohort n 1/10th of ancient Roman legion AHD/W7
cortege n retinue, train of attendants AHD/W7
court n residence/establishment of sovereign dignitary AHD/W7
courteous adj marked by gallantry/polished manners/ceremonial behavior AHD/W7
courtesan n prostitute with courtly/wealthy/upper-class clientele AHD/W7
courtesy n courteous behavior AHD/W7
courtier n attendant at royal court AHD/W7
curtilage n yard within fence surrounding house AHD/W7
curts(e)y n women's bow as gesture of respect/reverence AHD
hora n round dance AHD
horticulture n art/science of growing plants AHD/W7
ortolan n Southern European bird AHD/W7
Terpsichore prop.n Muse of dance/dramatic chorus (Greek mythology) LRC
West Germanic  
German: choral adj choral W7
Choralgesang n choral song W7
Latin: choraula n.masc choral song/accompanist W7
chorus n.masc chorus W7
cohors, cohortis n.fem court, yard, enclosure; cohort RPN
hortolanus n.masc ortolan (bird) W7
hortulus n.masc.dim small garden W7
hortus n.masc garden RPN
Terpsichore n.fem Terpsichore, one of the nine Muses W7
Medieval Latin: choralis adj of a choir W7
chorista n.masc choir singer W7
chorus n.masc choir W7
Old French: corteis n.fem courteous W7
corteisie n.fem courtesy W7
cortil n.masc courtyard W7
cortillage n.masc curtilage W7
cortoier vb to be at royal court AHD
co(u)rt n.fem court W7
cuer n.masc heart W7
Anglo-French: courteour n courtier AHD
cueristre n.masc chorister W7
Middle French: cohorte n.fem cohort W7
courtisane adj courtesan W7
French: chorale n.fem choir W7
cortège n.masc cortege, procession W7
cour adj enclosure, yard W7
ortolan n.masc ortolan W7
Old Italian: corte n.fem court W7
cortigiana n.fem woman courtier W7
cortigiano n.masc courtier W7
Italian: corte n.fem court, courtyard CID/W7
corteggiare vb to court W7
corteggio n.masc cortege W7
ortolano n.masc gardener; ortolan W7
Rumanian: horă n hora AHD
Albanian: dorë n hand RPN
Homeric Greek: χορός n.masc (round) dance, dancing place LS
χόρτος n.masc enclosure LS/RPN
Greek: Terpsichorē n.fem Terpsichore W7
choraulēs n.masc choral accompanist W7
New Greek: χορος n hora AHD
Armenian: jeṙn n hand RPN
Sanskrit: hárati vb to take, seize, carry off RPN
Tocharian B: ṣar n hand RPN
Tocharian A: tsar n hand RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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