Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑héslo-   'thousand, chiliad'

Semantic Field(s): Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mīl n mile W7
Middle English: mile n mile W7
milioun n million W7
English: chiliad n 1000 AHD/W7
kilo- pfx thousand AHD/W7
mil n unit of length: 1/1000 inch AHD/W7
mile n unit of distance: 5,280 feet AHD/W7
millefleur n background of (lit. 1000) small plants/flowers AHD
millenary adj re: 1000 AHD/W7
millenary n 1000 units/things AHD/W7
millepore n large stony hydrozoan coral AHD/W7
millesimal n thousandth AHD/W7
milli- pfx thousandth AHD/W7
milliary adj marking Roman mile AHD/W7
millime n Tunisian currency unit AHD
million nbr.card 1000 thousand (1,000,000) AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: mīl(l)a n mile W7/ASD
German: Kilo pfx kilo- LRC
Meile n.fem mile LRC
milli- pfx milli- LRC
Million nbr.card million LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: míla n mile ASD
East Germanic  
Crimean Gothic: hazer nbr.card thousand (1000) CGo/GED
Latin: milia miles, thousands W7
miliarius adj consisting of 1000; one mile long W7
mille, milli- nbr.card/pfx thousand, milli- W7
millenarius adj re: a thousand W7
milleni adv one thousand each W7
millesimus adj thousandth W7
milliarius adj containing a thousand W7
Late Latin: chilias, chiliadis nbr.card chiliad W7
millenarium n.neut millenary W7
millenarius adj of a thousand W7
Middle French: milion nbr.card.masc million W7
French: kilo- pfx kilo- W7
mille-fleur(s) n millefleur AHD
milli- pfx thousand, milli- W7
Old Italian: milione nbr.card.masc million W7
mille nbr.card thousand (1000) W7
Greek: chilias nbr.card chiliad W7
Middle Persian: hazār nbr.card thousand (1000) GED
Persian: hazār nbr.card thousand (1000) IEW
Sanskrit: sahasra nbr.card thousand (1000) W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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