Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hesor-, g̑hesr-   'hand'

Semantic Field(s): Hand


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: cirurgian n chirurgeon W7
surgien n surgeon W7
English: chirurgeon n surgeon AHD/W7
enchiridion n manual, handbook AHD/W7
imprest vb.trans to loan/advance (money) AHD/W7
press n impressment into service W7
press vb to impress, force into service W7
prest vb.obs to enlist by paying in advance W7
presto adv quickly, at once AHD/W7
surgeon n medical specialist practicing surgery AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Chirurg n.masc chirurgeon LRC
Chirurgie n.fem surgery LRC
Latin: praesto, praestāre vb to pay/lend, provide, lit. stand before W7
praestō adv here, present, on hand CLD/W7
praestus adj ready W7
Late Latin: enchiridion n.neut handbook W7
Old French: cirurgie n.fem surgery W7
cirurgien n.masc surgeon W7
Anglo-French: surgien n.masc surgeon W7
Italian: imprestare vb to lend money W7
prèsto adv quickly W7
Greek: χείρ n.fem hand LRC
Cuneiform Luwian: (i-)iš-ša-ri-iš n hand RPN
Hieroglyphic Luwian: istri hand RPN
Lycian: izri- n hand RPN
Hittite: ki-eš-šar n hand RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at