Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghrebh-   'to dig, grub, grave, scratch'

Semantic Field(s): to Dig, Delve, to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: græf, graf n.str.neut grave ASD/GED
græft n sculpture, carved object RPN
grafan vb.str to grave, bury GED/RPN
grafere n carver, sculptor RPN
grafu n.fem hollow GED
Middle English: grave n grave W7
graven vb to grave W7
groof n groove W7
grubbe n grub, insect W7
grubben vb to dig, grub W7
English: engrave vb.trans to form (on wood/metal) by incision AHD/W7
graben n depressed segment of earth's crust bounded on sides by faults AHD/W7
grave n excavation for burial of body AHD/W7
grave vb.trans to dig, excavate AHD/W7
gravlax n salmon cured in salt/sugar/dill AHD
gravure n process for producing printing plate on wood/copper AHD/W7
groove n long narrow channel/depression AHD/W7
grub n soft thick wormlike insect larva AHD/W7
grub vb to clear by digging out roots/stumps AHD/W7
Grubb prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: greb n grave ASD
gref n.str.neut grave GED
greva vb to grave GED
grova vb to grovel GED
Old Saxon: (bi-)graƀan vb to grave ASD
graf n.str.neut grave GED
Old High German: grab n grave W7
graba n.wk.fem spade GED/RPN
graban vb to grave, bury RPN
graft, grefti n.fem carving, sculpture ASD
grap n.str.neut grave GED
grubilōn vb.wk to dig, bury GED
German: Grab n.neut grave ASD
graben vb to grave, trench W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: grafa vb.str to grave, bury; inlay, engrave GED
Old Icelandic: grufla vb to grovel GED
græfr adj to be buried GED
grǫf n.fem grave, hollow GED
Icelandic: grafa vb to grave ASD
graflax n gravlax LRC
gröf n.fem grave ASD
Norwegian: gravlaks n gravlax LRC
gruvla vb to grovel GED
Danish: gravlaks n gravlax LRC
grævling n badger TLL
Swedish: grǣva vb to grave GED
grävling n badger TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bi-graban vb.str.VI to surround (with a rampart) GED
*graba n.fem rampart GED
graban vb.str.VI to grave GED/RPN
*grōba n.fem hole GED/RPN
*uf-graban vb.str.VI to dig up GED
*us-graban vb.str.VI to dig out GED/RPN
Middle French: engraver vb to engrave W7
French: gravure n.fem (art of) engraving W7
Lithuanian: grėbiu, grėbti vb to rake RPN
grėblẽlis n rake RPN
Latvian: greblis n rake, scraper GED
grebt vb to scrape, hollow out GED
Serbo-Croatian: grèbtsi vb to scratch RPN
Old Church Slavonic: greti, grebǫ, grebeši vb to scrape, scratch GED
grobъ n.masc grave, ditch LRC
pogreti, pogrebǫ, pogrebeši vb to bury LRC
Russian: grábli n rake RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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