Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghredh-   'to stride, march'

Semantic Field(s): to Walk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: agreen vb to agree W7
degraden vb to degrade W7
degree n degree W7
gree n gree W7
green vb to gree W7
ingredient n ingredient W7
ingress n ingress W7
progress n progress W7
regress n regress W7
retrograde adj retrograde W7
English: aggress vb to commit aggression AHD/W7
aggression n attack, offensive action/procedure W7
centigrade adj re: thermometric scale with water's freezing/boiling interval divided into 100 degrees AHD/W7
congress n act/action of meeting/coming together AHD/W7
degrade vb to demote, lower in grade/rank/status AHD/W7
degree n stair, step AHD/W7
degression n descent by steps/stages AHD
digress vb.intrans to turn aside from main topic/argument AHD/W7
egress n act/right of going/coming out AHD/W7
grade n stage in process AHD/W7
gradual adj proceeding by steps/degrees AHD/W7
gradual n response/versicle following Mass epistle W7
graduate n/adj (one) holding academic degree/diploma AHD/W7
graduate vb to grant academic degree/diploma W7
gree vb.dial to agree AHD/W7
gressorial adj adapted for walking AHD/W7
ingredient n constituent, component part of compound/mixture/combination AHD/W7
ingress n entrance, act of entering AHD/W7
introgression n ingress, going in AHD/W2I
pinnigrade adj walking by means of flippers/finlike organs AHD
plantigrade adj walking on sole with heel touching ground AHD/W7
progress n royal tour/journey marked by pomp/pageant AHD/W7
regress n withdrawal, act/privilege of going/coming back AHD/W7
retrograde adj having opposite direction w.r.t. motion of similar bodies AHD/W7
retrograde vb to reverse, turn back AHD/W7
retrogress vb.intrans to revert, move backward AHD/W7
tardigrade n microscopic arthropod having 4 pairs of legs AHD/W7
transgress vb to violate, go beyond set/prescribed limits AHD/W7
Scots English: gree n mastery, superiority AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Grad n.neut degree LRC
Latin: adgredior, adgredi, adgressus vb.dep to attack, aggress AHD/CLD
congredior, congredi, congressus vb.dep to come together W7
digredior, digredi, digressus vb.dep to depart, separate W7
egredior, egredi, egressus vb.dep to go out W7
egressus, egressūs n.masc action of going out W7
gradior, gradi, gressus vb.dep to go, step W7
gradus, gradūs n.masc step, grade, degree LRC
ingrediens, ingredientis adj/vb.ptc entering W7
ingredior, ingredi, ingressus vb to go into W7
ingressus, ingressūs n.masc a going into W7
progredior, progredi, progressus vb to go forth W7
progressus, progressūs n.masc advance W7
regredior, regredi, regressus vb to go back W7
regressus, regressūs n.masc a stepping back W7
retrogradior, retrogradi, retrogressus vb.dep to go/step back W7
retrogradus adj going back W7
tardigradus adj slow-moving W7
trangredior, transgredi, transgressus vb.dep to step across/beyond W7
Vulgar Latin: degradus n.masc degree, (stair)step W7
Late Latin: degrado, degradāre vb to lower someone's rank W7
Middle French: degrader vb to rot, decay W7
gré n.masc will, pleasure W7
French: aggresser vb to aggress AHD
centigrade n.masc divided into 100 degrees R1/W7
-grade sfx re: steps/walking W7
grade n.masc step, degree W7
plantigrade adj re: walking on sole of foot W7
transgresser vb to transgress W7
Lithuanian: gridyti vb to go, wander W7
Old Church Slavonic: gręsti, grędǫ, grędeši vb to come, walk LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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