Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghreib-   'to grip, grab'

Semantic Field(s): to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: grāpian, grōpian vb.wk to grope ASD/W7
grīpan, grāp, gripon, gripen vb.str.I to grasp, seize LRC
grippan vb to grip W7
Middle English: gripen vb to gripe W7
grippen vb to grip W7
gropen vb to grope W7
English: Grip prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
grip n strong tenacious grasp; part/device for gripping W7
grip vb.trans to seize firmly AHD/W7
gripe vb to grip, seize AHD/W7
grippe n flu/influenza: acute contagious febrile viral disease AHD/W7
grope vb to feel about blindly/uncertainly in search AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grīpa vb to grasp, seize ASD
Old Saxon: grīpan vb to grasp, seize ASD
Old High German: greifon vb to grope, touch ASD
grīfan vb to grasp W7
German: greifen vb to grip, grasp LRC
Griff n.masc grip, handle LRC
Grippe n.fem grippe LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: grīpa vb to grasp, seize ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: greipan vb to grasp, seize ASD
French: grippe n.fem grippe W7
Lithuanian: griebti vb to seize, snatch, hold LD/W7
Latvian: gribēt, gribu, gribēju vb to want LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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