Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ghrēi- : ghrəi- : ghrī-, and lit. ghrei-   'to smear over'

Semantic Field(s): to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: cramen n scab W7
Old English: āgrīsan vb to fear W7
crisma n.masc chrism ASD/W7
Crist prop.n Christ W7
cristen n Christian W7
cristnian vb to christen W7
grīma n.masc mask, visor, helmet; ghost, specter ASD
gris- pfx fearful W7
grislic, gryslīc adj grisly ASD/W7
Middle English: cre(i)me n cream W7
Crist prop.n Christ W7
cristnen vb to christen W7
grim n grime AHD
grisly adj grisly W7
English: chrism n consecrated oil used in liturgical churches for baptism/confirmation/ordination AHD/W7
Christ prop.n [transliterated Greek title meaning] anointed one AHD/W7
christen vb.trans to baptize AHD/W7
Christian prop.n adherent of Christianity LRC
cream n yellowish part of milk having 18-40 percent butterfat AHD/W7
Gríma prop.n spy a.k.a. Wormtongue in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
grime n dirt/soot/smut adhering to/embedded in surface AHD/W7
grisly adj gruesome, horrible AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: gryslik adj grisly ASD
Middle Dutch: grēme n.fem dirt, smut IEW
grīme n soot; mask AHD/W7
Flemish: grijm n soot; mask W7
Old Saxon: grīma n mask, helmet; specter IEW
Old High German: grīsenlīh, grisenlich adj grisly, terrible ASD/W7
German: grässlich adj grisly ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gríma n.fem mask; enigma; shadow of night LRC
Latin: christianus adj Christian W7
Christus n.masc Christ W7
Late Latin: chrisma n.neut ointment W7
Middle French: craime, cresme n.fem cream W7
Greek: chriein vb to anoint W7
chrisma n.neut ointment W7
christianos adj re: adherent of Christianity W7
Χριστός prop.adj/n (re:) Christ LRC
χριστός n.masc anointed one LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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