Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghrem-   'to grumble; resound, thunder'

Semantic Field(s): Noise, Thunder

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: gram, grom adj cruel, fierce; wroth, angry, inimical GED/ASD
grama n rage, wrath, fury, anger, trouble ASD
gremian, gremman vb.wk to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
grim(m) adj grim GED/W7
grymetan, grimet(i)an vb.wk to grunt, rave, roar, bellow ASD/GED
Middle English: grim adj grim W7
English: Gram prop.n 8th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
grim adj fierce, angry, savage AHD/W7
grimace n facial expression of disgust/disapproval AHD/W7
Grimbeorn prop.n Beorn's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Grimbold prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Grimslade prop.n Grimbold's home in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
grumble vb to mutter in discontent AHD/W7
Herugrim prop.n Theoden's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Isengrim prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
pogrom n organized devastation, massacre of helpless people AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: grim(m) adj grim GED
Middle Dutch: grommen vb to grunt W7
Old Saxon: gram adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
grim(m) adj grim GED
Old High German: gram adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
gramizzōn vb to grunt, rave, roar, bellow GED
gremezī n wrath, anger, annoyance GED
gremian, gremman vb.wk to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim ASD/GED
grim(m) adj grim GED/W7
Middle High German: gram adj wroth, angry ICE
German: gram adj wroth, angry ASD
grämen vb to vex, provoke, irritate ASD
Grimasse n.fem grimace LRC
grimm adj grim ASD
Yiddish: pogrom n pogrom W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: gramr n.masc king, warrior LRC
Old Icelandic: gramir n.pl fiends, demons ICE
gramr adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
gremja vb to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
grimmr adj grim GED
Icelandic: gramr adj wroth, angry ASD
gremja vb to vex, provoke, irritate ASD
grimmr adj grim ASD
gröm n.pl fiends, demons ASD
Danish: gram adj wroth, angry ICE
grum adj grim, cruel GED
Old Swedish: græmia vb to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
Swedish: grym adj grim, cruel GED
grymta vb to grunt GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: *gramjan vb.wk.I to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
*in-gramjan vb.wk.I to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
Italic  
Middle French: grimace n.fem grimace W7
grommeler vb to grunt W7
French: grimace n.fem grimace, wry face W7
Baltic  
Old Prussian: grumins n thunder GED
Lithuanian: gramėti vb to fall with a crash GED
Latvian: gremst vb to threaten GED
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: gromъ n thunder GED
-grьměti n thunder GED
Russian: pogrom n devastation W7
Hellenic  
Greek: chromados n.masc action of gnashing W7
χρόμος n noise, neighing GED
Iranian  
New Persian: γaram n anger GED
Avestan: granta- vb.past.ptc angered GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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